The bow should be used
pluck the strings
basic type of bowing/creates a series of separate bows by alternating up and down bows
legato bow articulation; a series of notes, often the same pitch, are played within a single bow stroke, each slightly separated with a slight push
on the string staccato; when a composer places an staccato, staccatissimo, or accent on the notes within a single bow stroke.
hooked bowing
applied to the dotted rhythms – the notation is a slur marking with a dot below the shorter of the two notes – performance practice is to play both notes in one stroke while shortening the first note
off the string staccato
a down stroke spicatto where two to six notes are played on one bow stroke
also known as richochet bowing – the technique of dropping or throwing the bow onto the string and allowing it to bounce naturally
al tallone
do the tremelo in the lower third in the bow
punta d’arco
make the tremelo in the upper third of the bow
snap pizz
pull the string hard enough to allow it to snap back against the fingerboard
pizz roll
fingered tremelo
col legno
use the wooden part of the bow in the strings
sul ponticello
play near the bridge
sul tasto
play over the fingerboard
sliding from one pitch to the other by completely filling in all of the intervening pitches – performer slides from one pitch to the next
alternation between two or more strings on the same instrument using the lower tuned strings to produce higher pitches and vice versa
the instrument is tuned to notes other than the normal pitches
scratch tone
putting bow bow hairs flat against the string
sotto voce
pitched, whisper like quality
parlando (sprechstimme)
spoken or in a spoken manner
interrupting the airflow without changing pitch – dynamic changes
rapidly alternating pitches
vocal chords vibrate at half speed
jumping back and forth over the break