What is Spain also known as?
Iberian Peninsula
Why does Spanish diverge from French and Italy?

Because of the Immigration of the Jewish, Moorish, Islamic, and Etc to Spain.



What year did the Morrish Invasion happen? How long did they stay?
Year 711 Occured and it was more of an occupation because they stayed for 700 years.
What are some of the most important major souther cities in Spain?
Cadiz, Granada, and Seville.

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What influences are seen in the architexture in Spain?


Arab, Gothic, and Roman qualities.
Why was Queen Isabella so powerful?
Queen Izzy was so powerful because she ruled for so long!
What are some good and bad aspects of Queen Isabellas reign?
Good: She pushed education and the arts, and the bad: She used the Roman Idea of testing faith – which resulted in the Spanish Inquisition.
What was the Spanish Inquisition and why was it so bad? What did it do to Spain?
The Spanish Inquisition was the persecution and forced conversions of the Spanish people to Christianity.  This forced anyone who refused to convert out of the country ( arabs, jews, morres, etc) 
What is a sephardic mean?
sephardic was the name given to the jews who were expelled from spain who didnt convert – They still exist today.
What was someone referred to if they converted to christianity in Spain?
They were referred to as “reconquista”  ( reconquered)
After Ferdinand and Isabell funded Chris Columbus’s exploration of North America in 1942 – What followed?

Siglo de Oro – The Century of Gold…. ( Golden Age)


After Columbus discovers North America they send more ships for explorations – they ravage the new lands, ravaged the people, and took all the gold they could find.

What were the 20th Century composers of Spanish Song known for doing with poetry?
They were known from taking many ties from the past and using it in thier music.; They loved using poets from 100 years ago.; Vega and Gongora did this often.
Why were Catalonia and Valencia more modern than the other Spanish cities?
They were more modern because of the access to the ports! They had access to Italy and to other countries that the southern cities did not.
Whoa re some Spanish artists of the Golden Age?;
Valezquez, El Greco
What are the two most common forms of Spanish in Spain?
Spanish as spoken in Madrid- Castellano ( Castille) AND Coastal Spanish- Catalan ( Catalonia)
What was Spains position in WWI and II?
In WWI and II they remained Neutral
What was the Crown Jewel in the 20th Century for Spain – How did this even effect the Spanish?

The Crown Jewel was the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) – This was a very big deal because it effected everyone and even sealed some composers fate.


Who was Francisco Frano and why was he so important?

Francisco Frano was a gerneral and dictator that ruled Spain from 1936-1975.


Franco is important because of how he changed Spain: He cared nothing for culture, people, or freedom.; He hated the multiple languages spoken and required that everyone speak Castillian ( no Catalan, Basque, etc)

What has happened in Spain since the death of Franco in 1975 ?
After the death of Franco the regions in Spain started to revive thier regionalism, and start to modernize more then they had been able to in the past.
What does Franco have to do with the types of poems that were written while he was in power? specifically the language?
They were all written in Castillian… Bc of the language Franco ruled only be spoken.; That is why we are only now finding poems that were written but never publshed in Basque, Catalan, etc.
What; were Goya’s Paintings like in the beg, mid, and end of his life? Describe them all –

Goya in the Beg: was very bright and happy – had alot of paintings with the Maja and Majo-Had many paintings of his muse- Alba- and did portraits



Goya in the Middle-  was about war and his interpretations of the treatment of the Spanish people.


Goya at the end- He was very dark and shady. ( refered to has his “Black Period”)  He painted Saturn eating his children which was a response to Napoleons war invasions.


** He was very effected by current events

Where was Granados born? and what was he like as a child?
Granados was born in Catalonia and was a very musically talented child who was very sensitive.   – Very sickly.. never a robust person. 
Why couldnt Granados study in France?
He could not because he was too sick. 

Why was it so important to study in France? What was Paris?
Paris was the hub of song
What did Granados do with his style regardless of the fact that he was studying with nationalistic composers at U of Barcelona?
He takes aspects of all the music he hears around him ( folk, nationalist,) and he makes his own style!
Who is known as the most imporant Spanish Composer?
Granados – he is known as the “Father of the Spanish Lied”
Who was the first to bring piano into Spanish Song>?

What was the primary accompaniment before Granados introduced piano into Spanish song


What does Rasgueado mean?
It means the accompaiment immitates strumming on the guitar w/ the piano.
What does Punteado mean?
It means the accompaniment immitates the plucking of a guitar w the piano.
What are some examples of “Ties from the Past” that composers used in thier music?
They used inspirations from painters from centuries before, the piano evoking the guitar – a past accompaniment form, and they set poets from 100 years ago.
What artist was Granados OBSESSED with?
Goya. He knew all his works and was even an amature painter.
What is Goyascas based on?
Goyascas – (Little Things of Goya) was based on Goyas paintings – Very important because after this premiere he CANT leave them behind and uses them to compose more!
Who is the poet that Granados collaborates with and writes Tonadillas with?
Periquet – he wrote 12 poems about Goyas works and Granados composes them.
After composing Tonadillas what does Periquet and Granados do?

Periquet suggests that since he still isnt satisfied with his itch to compose Goya themed material that he compose an opera about Goya- using his paintings as narratives.


They write- Goyascas – opera

Why did Granados have to premiere his opera in the United States?
It was supposed to premeier in 1916, however WWI breaks out and it is cancelled.- He is then invited by the NYC MET to premiere there- It was the METs FIRST SPANISH OPERA!
What happens to Granados when he comes back to Spain from America?
He dies when he jumps in the water to save his wife after the boat starts to sink.
What or who is the Maja and the Majo?
The Maja and the Majo are the realization of Goyas intepretation of spanish men and women, not noble, but also not poor… middle class. Granados wrote anbout them a lot.
What is the main difference in the two paintings by Goya of The Dutchess of Alba

The first she is in White and red and is very light and positive. The second she is in black because her husband has died – Ironically she is pointing to the ground to the word Goya in the sand… bc she was having an affair with him – She was always and forever Goyas.


these paintings inspired Granados opera “Goyascas”

What is the only thing Granados wrote that was not related to Goya?
Canciones Amatorias
What does Tonadillas mean?
it can be a religious pagent or it can be known as “a little song”

Periquet and Granados does something different with the song La Maja de Goya – what was that.


They took the first part of it and spoke the poetry over the accompaniment and then broke into the song later. IT was very interesting and is to be sung by female only, because at the end it is followed by a voice that is assumed to be Dutch. Alba saying ” Oh I will never be forgotten – Goya he was the best”
What is the most famous aria from Granados Goyascas?

La maja y el Rusena


Based on a folk melody

Who brings Spanish music into the 20th century?
Manuel de Falla
Falla went to Paris in 1907 and ended up staying for how long?
He ended up staying for 7 years (1907-1915)
Why is it important to know that Falla’s nanny was a gypsy?
It is important to know because she would sing to him in the gypsy style and she sang Cante Jondo ( Deep Song) – which is the root of Flamenco music and dancing.
What was Falla’s main instrument that he composed for?
what is a Zarzuela?
Zarzuela is a Spanish Operetta – It started as entertainment for the courts, but they were moved to large halls and became big money makers. _ (named after a berried plant)
What were Falla’s feelings about Zarzuelas?
He hated them because he was not a lovey dovey frothey emotional guy- that was not his style
Who did Falla meet when he went to Paris and how did they effect him?
Falla met Ravel and Debussy and was very musically influenced by him.
Where did Falla write his 7 Canciones Populares Espanonlas? – Why is this interesting?
He writes them when he is on Paris, about his homeland of Spain.; It represents many regions in this piece – even though the regions are so different.
What other cultures are conveyed in Falla’s music?
He was very much influenced by his Gypsy nanny so there are lots of Moorish, Indian, far eastern qualities in his music
What happens to Falla in 1936 when he meets Granada in the south of Spain?
He becomes very interested and involved in Deep Song or Condo Jonde
When the Spanish Civil War breaks out in 1936 what is Falla mostly doing? – Composing-
He is mainly working in instrumental music but also researching songs.
What does Falla do when Franco takes power?
He moves to Argentina to compose – Where he dies in 1946.
Whats interesting about Falla’s last song “Soneto a Cordoba” (Gongora)- ?
The piece sounds French!!! Those influenced by Ravel and Debussy!
Lorca was mainly known as a poet or a composer? AND what was his main instrument?
Lorca was known mainly as a POET, and was a talented guitarist.
What happens when Lorca meets Falla in 1920?
When Lorca meets Falla a mutual passion for Condo Jondo (Deep Song) manifests and they begin to start Deep Song Contests!
What did these contests do for the style of Deep Song?

These contests bring the style of Deep Song to the front lines of composers making it popular to set.



What did having the contests at Alhambra, Spain do ?
Having the event at a high profile location boosted the popularity of the style.
What is the difference between Condo Jondo and Flamenco ?
CJ – is about spiritual color, and Flamenco is abotu local color – Those are the MAIN differences.
What is Duende?
Duende is in Flamenco and CJ and is known as spirit~! It is not a muse, it is not a demon, it is a CREATIVE FORCE.
What is the significance of “Aye” in duende?
“Aye” was the evokation of duende
What caused Lorco to be shot point blank by the Franco Regieme? and what does Falla do as a result?
He was shot bc he was gay, and as a result Falla LEFT Spain for Argentina.
Rodrigo was not mainly a song composer, what did he write for primarily?
instrumental works, however, the vocal works that were written ARE very popular
Rodrigo studied thoery in Madrid, and in 1920 goes to France, why did he stay there?
Bc of the Spanish Civil War
Rodrigos wife _______ was very involved in his music- What did she do?
Kahmi, she was his editor, assistant, and adapted alot of Rodrigos songs.
What kinds of poets did Rodrigo set?
He liked to set high quality poetry – ( golden age poets, and also wife’s poetry)
How did studying in Paris effect Rodrigo?
It didnt… he wanted to compose sounds that were relative to his roots.
What was a strength and weakness of Rodrigo’s compositions?
He composed very beautiful very relatable Spanish music, but it was never new or cutting edge.
Was Rodrigo a virtuoso _______
When Rodrigo went back to Spain he had a comfortable job in Madrid, what kind of music did he compose at this time? ( Franco was still in power)
He composed very safe music, he was not going to rock the boat persay, speak out, or compose any resistance music bc of the safety of his job in Madrid the cap of Facist Spain.
Mompou was of Catalan decent, so where does his French origins come from?
His mother was French and his father was Catalan
Was Mompou’s sound sterotypically Spanish? If not was was his sound?
No he was not known for making sterotypical Spanish sounding music, His French and Catalan roots blended into a quasi Catalan/French sound. – Diction is very different
Besides song what else did Mompou write?
He was a big composer of piano music, symphonic, and concerti music
Who was Mompous main French influence? His idol –
Why did Mompou choose to stay in Spain for a while, considering most wanted to go to Paris to study?
He stayed in Spain to avoid WWI
Mompou was known as the master of what?
Master of the Small  – Master of the small pieces.
What types of poets did Mompou set?
He set his own poetry, loved Lorca, but also did set SOME golden poets.
Montsalvatge was a catalan composer, but was mostly based in what Island?
Did Montsalvatge use a certain type of poet when he composed sets of music?
no, he used a HUGE mix of cultures and poets from different time periods.
What influences did Montsalvatge draw from besides Cuban, and Spanish>?
He was always looking for new sounds and with his move to South American sounds also came an interest in African sounds.
What did Montsalvatge address with his music and the African culture?
The colonialism of the African slaves.