Ernest Siemens
Moving coil with horn
Western Electric
Builds 1st Public Address System
GE and Bell Labs
Concurrently discover cone loudspeaker principle
1st time separate system for audience and bands
Woodstock 1969
Simple Torches, Candles, and Wick lamps
Gas Lighting
Electrical lighting, Spotlight Develop
“Vari-Lite” the moving light
debuts on Genesis tour
Budget & Scale, Venue and Staging-Sightlines,Audio-Coverage, Gain and Intelligibility
Lighting & Effects, Projection (I-MAG)
Show Rider
A binding contract between the promotoer and the artist documenting the accepted performance details, payment schedule and percentages, technical provision, labor requirements, and catering needs.
Artist Rider
Meets needs and requirements of the band
Technical Rider
Meets need and requirements for the crew to set up the stage
Tour Manager
Non-Technical logistics of the show, hires staff
Production Manager
Supervises crew, Scheduling, and equipment on a daily basis
Stage Manager
Oversees entire performance area.
In charge of local union workers
Four phases of Production
Load in/Set-up, Technical checks, Performance, Load Out
Connects chains and cables to the ceiling
Licenses “Pyros” engineer
Audio Personnel
House Engineer, Monitor Engineer, System Enginers, Instrument/Back-Line Tech, Acoustic Analysis Engineer
House Engineer
Mixes for audience
Monitor Engineer
Mixes for the performers
System Engineer
Design audio systems (does not go on tour)
Instruement/Back-Line Tech
Prep instruments for performer
Acoustic Analysis Engineer
Maximizes sound based on room
Snake Cables
Carries multiple signals
Creates 2 copies of original audio signal
CobraNet Technology
Allows the transmission of dozens of digital audio and control data signals over commodity CAT-5 UTP or fiver optic cable. Replacing many analog audio signal lines
Digital Equipment
CobraNet and EtherSound, Networking technology for digital audio channels, Amplifiers, Front of House Speaker Cabinets,High frequency driver, Mid Range speaker, Subwoofer
Lighting Designer
Creates the look of the show (does not usually go on tour)
Lighting Director
In charge of lighting for show
Lighting System Technician
Assembles trusses, mounts lights, etc.
Lighting Plot
Guide for crew to follow
Programming standard for lighting (Allows for 512 data channels)
Controls voltage to lights (allows remote control)
Yoke/Head Style
Allows for 360 degrees
Mirror Lights
Faster lights, CANNOT allow for 360degrees
or Aspect ratio (image), the aspect ratio of an still image or a motion picture as displayed on screen.
Used to create shapes or laser-like look (such as Batman symbol)
is one of several audio over Ethernet technologies currently used in audio engineering and broadcast engineering applications. EtherSound is developed and licensed by Digigram.