1st Viennese School
title given to the three prominent composers of the Classical era: Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
instruments such as a flute, whistle, or horn that produce sound by using air as the primary vibrating means
performance style in which an ensemble is divided into two or more groups, performing in alternation and then together
Lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion; found in opera, cantata, and oratorio
Ars antiqua
Polyphonic musical style, usually French, from the period 1160-1320
Ars Nova
14th century French polyphonic musical style whose themes moved increasingly from religious to secular
applied to various ensembles, most of which refer to percussions and winds at their core. (concert, jazz, rock, marching, military)
Basso Continuo
Italian for “continuous bass”; also refers to performance group with a bass, chordal instrument, and one bass melody instrument
regular pulsation; a basic unit of length in musical time
resting place in a musical phrase; music punctuation
virtuosic solo passage in the manner of improvisation, performed near the end of an aria or a movement of a concerto
Cantus Firmus
“Fixed Melody”, usually of very long notes, often based on a fragment of Gregorian chant that served as the structural basis for a polyphonic composition, particularly in the Renaissance
Male singer who was castrated during boyhood to preserve the soprano or alto vocal register, prominent in 17th and early 18th century opera
Chamber Music
ensemble music for up about ten players, with one player to a part
French monophonic or polyphonic song, especially of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, set to either courtly or popular poetry
simultaneous combination of three or more tones that constitute a single block of harmony
instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string stretched between two points
(Italian for “tail”) part that brings a piece to an end, an extension of the closing idea that leads us to the final cadence in the home key
solo group of instruments in the Baroque concerto grasso
Concerto grosso
Baroque concerto type based on the opposition between a small group of solo instruments
concordant or harmonious combination of tones that provides a sense of relaxation and stability of music
Da camera [chamber]
a type of solo or trio sonata intended for secular performances; the designation is usually found in the late 17th cent., especially in the works of Corelli; begins with a prelude or a small sonata, acting as an introduction for the following movements
Da Capo Aria
lyric song in ternary, or A-B-A form, commonly found in operas, cantatas, and ovatorios
Da chiesa [church]
an instrumental musical form, common in the Baroque period, usually consists of four movements alternating between slow and fast (sonata)
structural reshaping of thematic material. Second section of sonata-allegro form; it moves through a series of foreign keys while themes from the exposition are manipulated
combination of tones that sounds discordant and unstable, in need of resolution
Doctrine of the Affections
Baroque doctrine of the union of text and music
the firth scale step
element of musical expression relating to the degree of loudness or softness, or volume, of a sound
any instrument whose sounds is produced by the oscillation of an electric current, such as the electric organ
opening section. In the fugue, the first section in which the voices enter in turn with the subject.
Forme Fixe
group of forms, especially in medieval France, in which the poetic structure determines musical repetitions
Functional tonality
the principle of organization around a central tone, the tonic; the two main scale types (MAJOR and MINOR) function within the system of tonality
inflammation of the joints
Graduated dynamics
cresendo and diminuendo gradually change
Gregorian Chant
Monophonic melody with a freely flowing, unmeasured vocal line; liturgical chant of the Roman Catholic Church
Ground bass
a repeating melody, usually in the bass throughout a vocal or instrumental composition
the simultaneous combination of notes and the ensuring relationships of intervals and chords
instrument that produces sound from the substance of the instrument itself by being struck, blown, shaken, scraped, or rubbed
Melodic idea presented in one voice and then restated in another, each part continuing as others enter
Italian cantata
a musical composition, often using a sacred text, comprising recitatives, arias and choruses, often involving a choir; a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment
text or script of an opera, oratorio, cantata, or musical
German for “song”; most commonly associated with the solo art song of the 19th century, usually accompanied by piano
Lutheran cantata
used in liturgy services; many written by Bach; generally unified by a chorale, or hymn tune, sung in the four-part harmony
Lutheran Chorale
CONGREGATIONAL SINGING IN German rather than latin; adapted melodies from Gregorian chant, secular art music, and even pop. Tunes. Originally sung in unison, these hymns soon were written in four-part harmony and sung by the choir, melody in soprano; clear-cut melody supported by chords
Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem; also popular in England
succession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as unity
any instrument that produces sound from tightly stretched membranes that can be struck, plucked, rubbed, or sung into
organization of rhythm in time; the grouping of beats into large, regular patterns, notated as measures
Middle Ages
Acceptance of the Roman Catholic Church; music was predominantly religious
Minuet & Trio
an A-B-A form (A = minuet; B = trio) is a moderate triple meter; often the third movement of the Classical multi-movement cycle
the process of changing from one key to another
vocal style established in the Baroque, with a solo singer(s) and instrumental accompaniment
Polyphonic vocal genre, secular in the Middle Ages but sacred or devotional thereafter
Musica Transalpina
Musica transalpina was a collection of Italian madrigals, mostly by Ferrabosco and Marenzio, fitted with English words. They were well-loved, and several similar anthologies followed immediately after the success of the first. Yonge himself published a second Musica transalpina in 1597, hoping to duplicate the success of the first collection.
Notre Dame School
began the change in polyphonic music
Music drama that is generally sung throughout, combining the resources of vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes
Opera Buffa
Italian comic opera
Opera Seria
Tragic Italian opera
Large-scale dramatic genre originating in the Baroque, based on a text of religious or serious character, performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; similar to opera but without scenery, costumes or action
performing group of diverse instruments in various cultures; in Western art music, an ensemble of multiple strings with various woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments
a short melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic pattern that is repeated throughout a work or a section of one
an introductory movement, as in an opera or oratorio, often presenting melodies from arias to come; also an orchestral work for concert performance
sponsorship of an artist or a musician, historically by a member of the wealthy or ruling classes
musical unit; often a competent of a melody
third section of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is restated, generally in the tonic
marked the passing of European society froma predominantly religious orientation to a more secular one, and from an age of unquestioning faith and mysticism to one of reason and scientific inquiry; focus on human fulfillment
Repetition & Contrast
a compositional technique whereby a passage or section is restated
Singing, in which a soloist or a group soloist alternates with the choir; “call and response”
the controlled movement of music in time
the larger or the two ensembles in the Baroque concerto grasso
short, recurring instrumental passage found in both the aria and the Baroque concerto
Musical form in which the first section recurs, usually in the tonic; it appears as the last movement in various forms
series of tones in ascending or descending order; may present the notes of a key
composition in A-B-A form, usually in triple meter, replaced the minuet and trio in the 19th century
restatement of an idea or motive at a different pitch level
Solo concerto
one instrument set against the orchestra
Solo sonata
a sonata for one instrument with continuo accompaniment
Sonata form
A movement in sonata-allegro form establishes a home key, then moves or modulates to another key and ultimately returns to the home key; a drama between two contrasting key areas
Stile Concertato
Baroque style developed by Monteverdi, which introduced novel effects such as rapid repeated notes as symbols of passion
Stile Recitative
A style used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas in which the text is declaimed in the rhythm of natural speech with slight melodic variation and little orchestral accompaniment.
String quartet
Chamber music ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, and cello. Also a multi-movement composition for this ensemble
fourth scale step, fa
multi-movement work made up of a series of contrasting dance movements, generally all in the same key
large work for orchestra, generally in three or four movements
deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off beat
rate of speed or pace of the music
Tension & Release
describes how music keeps the attention of the listener; tension = dominant chord; Release = tonic chord
Terraced Dynamics
dynamic changes that occur suddenly without general transition; used in Baroque style music
the interweaving of melodic (horizontal) and harmonic (vertical) elements in the musical fabric
Thematic transformation
musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm
Theme & Variations
compositional procedure in which a theme is stated and then altered in successive statements; occurs as an independent piece or as a movement of a multi-movement cycle
Timbre (tone color)
the quality of a sound that distinguishes one voice or instrument from another
principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on a major or minor scale
the first note of the scale or key
common chord type, consisting of three pitches built on alternate tones of the scale
Trio sonata
Baroque chamber sonata type written in three parts: two melody lines and the basso continuo; requires a total of four players to perform
Varied Repetition
a repetition of a musical theme in which the rhythm, harmony, or melody is altered or embellished
Venetian Polychoral Motet
two or more choirs of singers alternated
Word Painting
musical pictorialization of words from the text as an expressive device; a prominent feature of the Renaissance madrigal
legendary emperor of the Franks
Eleanor of Aquitane
was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages
Guillaume de Machaut
was a poet-composer of the French Ars Nova (new art) who wrote sacred music and polyphonic chansons set to fixed text forms
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
worked as an organist and choirmaster at various Italian churches; wrote over 100 Masses
George Frideric Handel
a German, wrote Italian opera for English audiences and gave England the oratorio
Martin Luther
German religious reformer
Giuseppe Torelli
Italian composer, most remembered for his contributions to the development of the instrumental concerto
Christoph Willibald Gluck
a German-born and Italian-trained composer who was able to liberate serious opera from its outmoded conventions
Ludwig van Beethoven
German composer; nine-symphonies
Pope Gregory I (the Great)
codifying melodies of the mass
Hildegard of Bingen
head of a monastery in a small town in western Germany; remembered for her writings on natural history and medicine
Guillaume Dufay
Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance; most famous and influential composer in Europe in the mid 15th century
Claudio Monteverdi
early Baroque master who wrote operas based on mythology and Roman history
Giovanni Gabrieli
an Italian composer and organist; one of the most influential musicians of his time, and represents the culmination of the style of Venetian School
Johann Sebastian Bach
German composer; as one of the main composers of the Baroque style, and as one of the greatest composers of all time
Antonio Vivaldi
one of the most prolific composers of his era, is best remembered for his more than 500 concertos
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. He is among the most enduringly popular of classical composers.
Prince Esterhazy
a family of enormously wealthy Hungarian princes famous for their patronage of the arts
leader of the Cathedral of Notre Dame; the first composer of the polyphonic music
successor of Leonin, expanded the dimensions of organum by increasing the number of voice parts first to three and then to four
Josquin Desprez
Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance; first master of the high Renaissance style of polyphonic vocal music that was emerging during his lifetime
John Farmer
English madrigal composer; wrote Fair Phyllis
Henry Purcell
wrote Dido and Aeneas, based on The Aeneid, a Roman epic by Virgil
Arcangelo Corelli
Italian composer of Baroque music
C.P.E. Bach
fifth child of Johann Sebastian Bach; influential composer working at time of transition between his father’s baroque style and the classical and romantic styles that followed
Joseph Haydn
was one of the most prolific composers of the Classical period; chamber music