The Sudanese

  • The people of West Java
  • typically used as adjective

Pajajaran Kingdom

  • Only major Hindu kigdom in area
  • arose after fall of Sumatra’s Srivjaya
  • did not acknowledge self-proclaimed sovereignty of Majapahit
  • Majapahit killed Pajajaran nobles according to poem after they refused to submit to his will
  • defeated by Mataram
  • stories and poems kept alive in Sudanese music and song

Mataram Kingdom

  • Islamic kingdom from Central Java
  • Took control of Pajajaran in 17th century
  • set up kabupatens goverened by bupati
  • imported styels and symbols of power from Mataram


  • bamboo rattles
  • indigenous Sudanese instrument
  • used for Pajajaran epic narrative songs


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  • Zither
  • indigenous Sudanese instruments
  • played in tembang Sunda/Cianjuran and is closely associated w/Pajajaran
  • nostlagic sound for Sudanese

19th century World Exposition

  • groups of singers, dancers, and gamelan, players were sent to Chicago to play at world fair
  • replica of Sari Oneng Parakansalak gamelan
  • played both Central Javanese and Sudanese music

Dutch East Indies Company

  • gained control of Priangan from Mataram in 18th century
  • slowed Javanese flow of culture


  • maintain indigenous Sudanese music
  • 5000 in 45 villages isolated in mountains
  • descendants of Pajajaran aristocrats
  • dry-rice farming
  • guardians of Sudaneses land and tradition
  • inner and outer
  • play angklung for planting
  • outer will play gamelan similar to gamelan salendro during certain events


  • Sudanese aristocratic ministers
  • in charge of kabupaten
  • established by Mataram
  • developed styles of music and fashions from Central Java
  • flow of ideas between Javanese and Sundanese

Gamelan salendro/pelog

  • now unified musical genre
  • mostly identical to Javanese tunings
  • salendro: 5 pitch equidistant, men’s dancing, listening music for women singers
  • pelog: 7 pitch non-equidistant, for wayang, dhalang wanted to own



  • female singers
  • preferred gamlean salendro
  • more flexibility to sing songs in other Sundanese tunings

surupan practice

  • practice of using alternate tuning systems

4 functional layers

  1. colotomic foundation
  2. simplified/abstracted melody
  3. elaborated/varied melody
  4. drum pattterns that shape phrases, coordinate rhythmic activity, synchronize music w/other activities

combine for a stratified musical texture

pillar pitches (pokok)

  • individual pitches
  • provide framework for including individual parts

interlocking parts (caruk)

  • alternation of saron 1 and saron 2
  • rhythms of both sarons interlock together to form one meoldic line

lagu alit

  • small pieces
  • expan/contract time (wilets) btwn pillar pitches
  • can have many different wilets

lagu gede

  • great pieces
  • have very long gong phrases
  • set melodies


  • family lineage
  • 1 of 3 forces that compel Sudanese individuals to the arts


  • tuning of Sundanese gamelan ensemble
  • gamelan of the aristocracy and klasik
  • adapted for modern pop music
  • old term referring to gong and gong ensembles

“quasi-pelog” tuning

  • degung ensemble’s scale
  • large and small intervals
  • 5-tone scale
  • some intervals sound slendro

degung instrumentation

  • smaller ensemble
  • only few bronze instruments, suling, drums
  • 6 to 7 musicians

suling degung

  • smaller, higher pitched
  • shriller
  • louder
  • 4 finger holes for 5 pitches of pelog

lagu klasik

  • classical pieces
  • core of degung repertory
  • composed by Idi and colleagues
  • irregulat formal structures
  • texture w/simultaneous melodic variations
  • stock melodic phrases
  • simple drum parts w/sticks

degung kawih

  • panambih songs w/degung accompaniment
  • imitate gamelan salendro idioms on degung instruments

RRI Bandung role

  • maintained Sudanese music ensembles and musicians for local component
  • Sudanese language broadcast
  • theme music of degung
  • “associating sound of degung w/particular Sudanese ethnic identity in national Indonesian context”


  • ceremonial event for Sudanese families
  • mark significant events in lives
  • significant life-cylce events

wayang golek

  • rod puppet theater
  • begin in evening and last all night
  • dalang manipulates puppets, narration and dialogue, cues to gamelan
  • carved, 3D puppets
  • gamelan integral to performance

Koko Koswara

  • Western inspired songs for gamelan salendro and Sudanese instruments w/diatonic tuning
  • felt music should appeal to audience
  • traditional and non-traditional means

Nano S.

  • Koko Koswara’s protege
  • hybirds of traditional Sudanese music and popular
  • used degung and ban combined w/Western diatonic tuning

gamelan selap

  • special gamelan
  • includes extra keys and gongs
  • allow for salendro, pelog, degung and others