art song
a song intended to be appreciated as an artistic statement rather than as entertainment, featuring precisely notated music, usually through composed, and requiring professional standards of performance.
Absolute Music
music that is independent of words,drama,visual images, or any kind of representational aspects. ex-beethovens sonata
1- a long narrative poem, or musical setting of such a poem.
2- late-eighteenth-century German poetic form that imitated the fold ballad of england and scotland and was set to music by German composers. The ballad expanded the LIED in both forn and emotional content
1- french forme fixe, normally in three stanzas, in which each stanza has the musical form AABC and end s with a refrain (C).
2-Instrumental piece inspired by the genre of narrative poetry
bel canto (Italian-“beautiful singing”)
Elegant italian vocal style of the early neneteenth century marked by the lyrical, embellished, and florid melodies that show off the beauty, agility, and fluency of the singer’s voice.
the operatic scene structure developed by Gioachino Rossini in the early nineteenth century, the last part of an aria or ensemble, which was lively and brilliant and expressed active feelings, such as joy or despair,
cadenza (Italian-“cadence”)
highly embellished passage, often improvised, at an importance cadence, usually occurring just before the end of a piece or section,
male singers who were castrated before puberty to preserve their high vocal range, prominent in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, especially in opera
character piece
a piece of characteristic music, especially one for piano
1- in a fugue, a set of entries of the subject
2-in sonata form, the first part of the movement, in which the main themes are stated, beginning in the tonic and usually closing in the dominant.
1-in a fugue, a passage of counterpoint between statements of the subject
2-in rondo form, a section between two statements of the main theme,
3-a subsidiary passage between presentations of the main thematic material
type or category of musical compostion, such as sonata or symphony
Gesamtkunstwerk (German, total artwork or collective artwork)
term coined by richard wagner for a dramatic work in which poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music all work together toward one artistic expression.
grand opera
a serious form of opera, popular during the romantic era, that was sung throughout the included ballets, choruses and spectacular staging
idee fix
french for fixed idea or obsession) term coined by hector Berlioz for a melody that is used throughout a piece to represent a person, thing, or idea, transforming it to suit the mood and situation
Leitmotive (german for leading motive )
in an opera or film score, a motive, theme, or musical idea associated with a person, thing, mood, or idea, which returns in original or altered form throughout
libretto (italian, “little book”)
literary text for an opera or other musical stage work
song with german words, whether monophonic, polyphonic, or for voice with accompaniment; used especially for polyphonic songs in the reniassance and songs for voice and piano in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
lyric opera
romantic opera that lies somewhere between light opera comique and grand opera
a type of polish fold dance (later ballroom dance)in triple meter, characterized by accents on the second or third beat and often by dotted figures on the first beat or a stylized piano piece based on such a dance
1- in politics and culture, an attempt to unify or represent a particular group of people by creating a national identity through characteristics such as common language, shared culture, historical traditions, and national institutions and rituals.
2- nineteenth and twentieth century trend in music in which composers were eager to embrace elements in the music that claimed a national identity
type of short piano piece popular during the romantic period, marked by highly embellished melody, sonorous accompaniments, and a contemplative mood
opera (italian for work)
drama with continuous or nearly continuous music, staged with with scenery, costumes, and action
opera comique (french comic opera)
1- in eighteenth century, light french comic opera, which used spoken dialogue instead of recitatives
2-in nineteenth century france, opera with spoken dialogue whether comic or tragic
nineteenth century kind of light opera with spoken dialogue, originating in opera bouffe
genre of dramatic music that originated in the seventeenth century, combining narrative, dialog, and commentary through arias, recitatives, ensembles, choruses, and instrumental music, like an unstaged opera. usually on a religious or biblical subject
1- an orchestral piece introducing an opera or other long work
2-independent orchestral work in one movement, usually descriptive
parlor song
song for home music-making, sometimes perofrmed in public concerts as well
a stately polish processional dance in triple meter, or a stylized piece in the style of such a dance.
program music
instumental music that tells a story or follows a narrative or other sequence of events, often spelled out in an accompanying text called a program.
term applied to music of the nineteenth century. romantic music had looser and more extended forms, greater experimentation with harmony and texture, highly expressive and memorable melodies,improved musical instruments, an interest in musical nationalism, and a view of music as a moral force, in which there was a link between the artists inner lives and the worlds around them
rondo form
musical form in which the first or main section recurs, usually in the tonic, between subsidiary sections or episodes
rubato (stolen time)
technique common in romantic music in which the performer holds back or hurries the written note values.
sonata form
form typically used in first movements of sonatas, instrumental chamber works, and symphonies during the classic and romantic periods. and expansion of rounded binary form, it was described in the nineteenth century as consisting of an exposition, development,and recapitulation based on a limited number of themes
A form that blends characteristics of a sonata form and rondo form. One frequent structure is ABACABA, in which A and B correspond to the first and second themes of sonata form and B appears first in the dominant and returns in the tonic
song cycle
a group of songs performed in succession that tells or suggests a story.
of a poem, consisting of two or more stanzas that are equivalent in form and can each be sung to the same melody; of a vocal work, consisting of a strophic poem set to the same music for each stanza
symphonic poem
term coined by Franz Liszt for a one movement work of program music for orchestra that conveys a poetic idea, story, scene, or successions of moods by presenting themes that are repeated varied, or transformed.
large work for orchestra usually in for movements
thematic transformation
a method devised by franz Liszt to provide unity, variety, and a narrative- like logic to a composition transforming the thematic material into new themes or other elements in order to reflect the diverse moods needed to portray a programmatic subject
composed throughout, as when each stanza or other unit of a poem is set to new music rather than in a strophic manner to a single melody.
composed throughout, as when each stanza or other unit of a poem is set to new music rather than in a strophic manner to a single melody.
tone poem
symphonic poem, or a similar work for a medium other than orchestra
verismo ( italian for realism)
1- nineteenth century operatic movement that presents everyday people in familiar situations, often depicting sordid or brutal events
2- more broadly term used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries for operas that turned away from romantic idealism and reliance on conventions
performer who specializes in one instrument and dazzles audiences with his or her technical prowess
type of couple dance in triple meter, popular in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. or a short stylized work for the piano in the style of such a dance
118- Ludwig van Beethoven-piano sonata in C minor, Op. 13 (pathetique) First movement
Title=selling point; strong, passionate: sonata form, slow intro- depicts grief, dotted rhythms evoke the elevated style of the French overture
119- Ludwig van Beethoven- Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major, Op. 55 (erocia) First movement: allegro con brio
Heroic symphony; depicts heroism of his own, or of prince Ferdinand ; fighting against despair, winning back will to create: antagonist is main motive of 1st theme. Sonata form
120- Ludwig van Beethoven- String quartet in C-sharp minor, Op.131 First and Second Movements
4th of 5 quartets in the last 3 years of life, greatest work of medium; 7 mvmts w/out pause instead of 4.
121- Franz Schubert- Gretchen am Spinnrade, D.118, Lied
Text=poem- Johann Wolfgang von Goethe . dramamtic and empathetic portayl of young womens first feelings of love: form goethes first drama (Faust) Greth is alone, spinning thread, admitting how much she has fallen for Faust. The poem is strophic, music is not, each stroph is varied
122- Franz Schubert- Winterreise, D.911: No.5, Der Lindenbaum, Song Cycle
The lindenbalm tree. Song cycle/composer sets series of poems that all together tell as story. Winterriese has 24 poems by muller story of man who visits places hear murmurs from past spring and summers when he woed a young women who later rejected him. Poem is strophic, song is modified strophic(AA1BA2)
123- Robert Schumann- Dichterliebe, Op.48, No.1, Im wunderschonen monat mai, Song Cycle
In the marvelous month of may. Text by henrich heine. Dichterlibe- 16 songs to 60+poems of heines poems. Narrative upon his love affair 4 months before him and clara were married. The parallelism of text promts schumannto write strophic form. Irony= first text of love is dissonant
124- Stephen Foster- Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair, Parlor Song
Wrote to woo Jeanie back. Words by foster himself: first verse idealize Jeanie with images of nature, the second and third turn dark with dying hopes. Song is Strophic (AA1BA2)
125- Robert Schumann- Carnaval, Op.9:Nos. 5,6,7, Character Pieces
Character piece- short pieces intended to capture a mood or suggest a scene or character. Carnival is among his most popular sets. Dedicated to polish violinist and composer Karol Lipinski. Has 20 short mvts. The varied images evoked by gthe titles parallel the strong contrasts between mvts each of which features distinctive ideas and textures that give it a highly individual character. Carnival also exemplifies schumanns interest in musical ciphers or codes
126- Fryderyk Chopin- Mazurka in B-flat Major, Op.7, No.1, Mazurka(dance) ( piano)
Mazurka-polish dance:dedicated to Paul Emil Johns, the American rep of the Pleyel publishing house. In triple meter features a rhythm with either two eighth notes or a dotted eighth and sixteenth on the downbeat followed by two quarter notes. AA||:BA:||:CA:||….oom pah pah
127- Fryderyk Chopin- Nocturne in D-flat Major, Op.27, No.2 Nocturne (character piece)(piano)
Wrote 18 nocturnes.dedicated to countess therese dapponyi. Nocturnes represent a cosmopolitan tradition. Concept from irish composer john field. Melody ranges widely, brings elements of birtuoso piano tradition into a genre more closely associated with the salon and parlor than with the concert stage. Modified strophic for in 3 verses with coda ( AB trans A1B1 trans A2B2 trans coda)
128- Franz Liszt- trios etudes de concert ( three concert etudes- No.3, un sospiro ( a sigh)Etude
It reflects the composers’ superior skill as a pianist. Greatest challenge is accentuating the slowly moving melody that occurs outside or within rapid broken chord figuration. Harmonic plan- three keys and their parallel minors separated by major thirds