Romantic artists often depicted scenes of
Extreme violence and suffering
Many romantic composers created unique music that reflected their _________________
When composers deliberately created music with specific national identity, using folk songs, dances, legends, and histories, it was known as
When composers wrote music based on foreign lands and cultures
Program music
Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
Specifies the nonmusical element via a title or explanatory comments
Chromatic harmony
Uses chords containing tones not found in the prevailing major or minor scales
The slight holding back or pressing forward of tempo
Thematic transformation
When a melody returns in a later movement or section of a romantic work and has been changed in dynamics, orchestration, or rhythm.
French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars
Caused much of the aristocracy to not be able to afford to hire musicians as skilled servants, thus contributing to the development of a greater number of “free artists”
By the late 1800s, women could not only study musical performance, but this as well
Musical composition
Art Song
Composition for solo voice and piano
An integral part of the composer’s concept in the art song is the
Strophic form
Repeating the same music for each stanza of a poem
Through-composed form
Creating new music for each stanza of a poem
Modified strophic form
When the same music is repeated for only some stanzas (Ex. ABA)
Song Cycle
A set of songs grouped together by a story line or a musical idea
Franz Schubert was
The earliest master of the Art Song
Franz Schubert composed
143 works when he was eighteen, including The Erlkonig, and 179 works when he was nineteen, including two symphonies, an opera, and a mass
Schubert died of this disease at age thirty-one
The Trout (1817) was composed by
Robert Schumann desired to become this in his early twenties but was prevented from doing so due to problems with his fingers
Piano virtuoso
Schumann founded and edited the
New Journal of Music
Schumann married his teacher’s daughter _______
Clara Wieck
Carnaval (1834-35) was composed by
Clara Wieck Schumann often played compositions by her husband and their close friend _________
Johann Brahms
After her husband’s death, Clara Schumann stopped this
Frederic Chopin was known as
The poet of the piano
Chopin preferred to play for ___________ instead of in concert halls
Private, intimate gatherings
Chopin taught piano to
The daughters of the rich and aristocratic
A night piece, or slow, lyrical, intimate composition for piano; a favorite of Chopin
An etude is a
Study piece designed to help the performer master a certain skill or technique on the piano
Etude in C Minor, or Revolutionary, was composed by
A piece in triple meter, originated as a stately dance for the Polish nobility
Franz Liszt left
A trail of broken hearts from Paris to Moscow
Liszt was determined to become like this virtuoso violinist, but on the piano
Liszt composed this etude
Franz Liszt’s music was considered by some to be
Vulgar and bombastic; others reveled in its extroverted romantic rhetoric
This composer’s music was deeply rooted in classical tradition, and his personal life was also much more traditional than his contemporaries
Felix Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn resurrected the music of this classical composer by conducting St. Matthew’s Passion
Program music
Instrumental music associated with a story, poem, idea, or scene
Absolute music
Instrumental pieces that are music for music’s sake; the opposite of program music
Program symphony
A composition in several movements; as its name implies, a symphony with a program
Concert Overture
Has one movement, usually in sonata form.
Symphonic poem (tone poem)
A one-movement composition that may take many traditional forms–sonata form, rondo, or theme and variations–or an irregular form.
Incidental music
Music meant to be performed before and during a play; sets the mood for certain scenes.
This fiery composer became furious if a conductor tampered with a composer’s orchestration
Hector Berlioz
Berlioz fell madly in love with Harriet Smithson, a Shakespearean actress, and wrote his this based on her
Symphonie Fantastique
Idee fixe
A single, repeated melody associated with a person; used by Berlioz to represent the beloved in his Symphonie Fantastique
Tchaikovsky was married for two weeks before getting divorced; apparently, he married only to hide his
Tchaikovsky did not get his start in music until age
Tchaikovsky’s benefactress, whom he never met, and who suddenly cut off her support for no apparent reason
Nadezhda von Meck, a very rich widow with eleven children
Perhaps Tchaikovsky’s most well-known piece, written for a ballet score
The Nutcracker
Antonin Dvorak was little-known until receiving a recommendation from this composer
Johann Brahms
While in America, Dvorak became interested in
Native American melodies and African American spirituals
Pentatonic scales
Five-note scales
Brahms was repulsed by the music of this composer
Brahms career flourished in large part due to his endorsement by and friendship with
The Schumanns
Brahms never composed in this form
Brahm’s works are deeply rooted in the musical tradition of these previous composers
Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven
A German Requiem (1868) was composed by
Giuseppe Verdi was the most popular of all
Opera composers
Verdi’s intense love of music as a child inspired his parents to buy him this
A piano
Verdi vowed to composer no more after his comic opera failed due to a lack of inspiration caused by
The deaths of his infant children and his beloved wife
To Verdi, this ancient people group symbolized the enslaved Italians
The Jews
Verdi’s operas often scandalized critics due to the apparent support of
rape, suicide, and free love
Verdi did not compose for the elite, but for
The public
La donna e mobile is one of opera’s two most popular pieces and is found in Verdi’s opera entitled
Verdi’s successor as the most popular opera composer of his time was
Giacomo Puccini
This modern Broadway musical is based on the story of La Boheme, one of Puccini’s most successful operas
Puccini spent as much time polishing this as he did composing the music
This opera’s plot has been summarized as “boy meets girl, boy loses girl, boy and girl are reunited as girl dies of consumption in boy’s arms and curtain falls.”
La Boheme
Richard Wagner
Was so successful, he had his own opera house built in Bayreuth, Germany
This composer shamelessly lived off of other people and accumulated enormous debts that he never repaid
For Wagner, the opera house was a
Short musical idea associated with a person, an object, or a thought in the drama
Wagner’s gigantic cycle of four music dramas are collectively called
The Ring of Nibelung
Gustav Mahler was
The last great Austrian romantic conposer
By the time he was 28, Mahler was the director of the
Budapest Opera
At 37, Mahler converted from Judaism to Roman Catholicism, at least in part so that he could conduct the
Vienna Opera
Mahler’s music is known for its extreme shifts in