col legno
using the wood of the bow on the strings
plucking the strings
idee fixe
fixed idea
a motive that occurs in every movement
bel canto
beautiful singing
emphasis on singing not accompaniment
studies for the piano
tempo is free
program music
music that has a program
absolute music
music without a program
why do Mazurka by Chopin and The Moldau by Smetana show Nationalism
a mazurka is a polish peasant dance
The Moldau is a tribute to his country
exoticism (pieces we studied?)
exemplifies the Romantic characteristics of love of far-off places
Puccini’s Madame Butterfly, Carmen
characteristics of Romantic symphony
chromatic melodies
harmony that was highly emotional and expressive
phrases that seem to never end or resolve
bigger orchestra and need a conductor
improvements of piano
thicker strings, soft pedal (una corda), iron soundboard, sustaining pedal (sostenuto)
three ways of setting a poem to music
strophic – every verse has the same music
modified strophic – some same, some changed to reflect the words
through-composed – every verse has different music
program music genres
concert overture, incidental music, program symphony, symphonic poem
three new instruments
piccolo, contrabassoon, tuba, saxophone, english horn
Franz Schubert
piano and voice
four characters/one singer
symphony no. 3, III
johannes brahms
ternary form
two themes in the A section
poco allegretto
The Valkyrie, Act III, closing of Scene 3
Richard Wagner
music drama
second in cycle of four
part of the Ring cycle
4 1/2 hours
has leitmotifs
Rigoletto, Act III, Quartet
Giuseppe Verdi
ensemble of 4 people with 4 different emotions
allegro, with agitated movement
dialogue between characters
The Moldau
Bedrich Smetana
symphonic poem
Ma Vlast (My Country)
nationalist piece about a river running through his country
river theme played by strings
hunting theme played by french horns
Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67
introduces three new instruments into the orchestra: trombones (3), contrabassoon, piccolo
uses motive in all four movements
transition from third to fourth movement without a break