Romantic Lied

German song for voice and piano.

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

Built on strong 18th century tradition. Popularity grew after 1800. The number of german song collections published increased from about one a month in the late 1700’s to over one hundred a month in 1826. Changes in poetry anticipated changes in the Lied. Poets drew elements from both classical and folk traditions. A frequent theme was an individual confronting the greter forces of nature or society, vulneralbe yet ennobled by the encounter; another was nature as a metaphor for human experience. The main poetic genre continued to be the lyric poem, a short, strophic poem on one subject expressing a personal feeling or viewpoint. The ultimate models were the lyric poets of acient Greece and Rome, such as Sappho and Horace.

In the late 18th century, German pets cutivated a new form in imitation of the folk ballads of England and Scotland. These might alternate narrative and dialogue and usually delt with romaantic adventures and supernatural incidents. Their greater length and wider palette of moods and events inspired composers to use more varied themes and textures. Expanded the Lied both in form and in emotional content. The piano rose from accompaniment to equal partner with the voice in illustration and intensifying the meaning of the poetry.
song cycle
Lieder composers often grouped their songs into collections with a unifying characteristic, such as texs by a single poet or a focus on a common theme. Beethoven’s An die ferne Gelibte introduced the concept of Liederkreis (song cycle) in which all the songs were to be performed in order, as movements of a multimovement vocal work. Using this format, composers could tell astory through a succession of songs, combining the narrative emphasis of ballads with the focused expressivity of the lyric poem.
concept introduced by Beethovens An die ferne Geliebte. German for song cycle.
Zeitschrift fur Musik
(New Journal of Music). Journal which after injuring his hand, Schumann wrote criticism for and edited from 1834-44. In his essays and reviews, he opposed empty virtuosity, urged the sudy of older music, and was among the first and strongest advocates of Chopin, Brahms, and the instrumental music of Schubert.
parlor songs

Songs tradition in the United States. held and important place in home music making, but they were also sung in musical theater productions and public concerts. Songs of this type are usually strophic or in verse-refrain form, with piano preludes and postludes based on phrases from the tune. Their expressivity lies almost entirely in the vocal melody. The piano supports the singer with conventional figuration, rather than dramatizing or interpreting the text as it does in many German Lieder.

Song like Bishop’s Home sweet home and Foster’s Oh! Susanna were of this genre. While today we think of these as popular songs of the day, they were actually art songs just as German Lieder and share many of the same characteristics.

Graded studies such as Clementi’s Gradus ad Prnassum (Steps to Parnassas) consisted of one hundred exercises on increasing difficulty. Method books by Beethoven’s student Carl Czerny also fit this genre. Chopin’s were the first with significant artistic content and as such were often played in concert, inaugurating the genre of the concert etude.
Song without words
Championed by Mendelssohn. His best know works Lieder ohne Worte was forty-eight short character pieces grouped in eight books. In the first song, the similarity to the lied is immediately apparent. It could be written on three staves, the bass for the pianist’s left hand, the arpeggiation for the ight and the melody for a singer. Having to cover all three lines with two hands prduces interesting pianistic problems how to bring out the melody and bass in a smooth legato while using mainly the weeker fourth and fifth fingers, and how to share the sixteenth note figuration evenly betweent he two hands.
Piano piece (character piece) mostly composed by Chopin which evoke the ballrooms of Vienna, but his mazurkas and polonaises are suffused with the spirit of Poland.
Piano Character pieces written by Chopin which dipict the Polish dance. These are dances in 3/4 meter often marked bya rhythmic figure of an eighth and two sixteenths on the first beat. Chopin’s go beyond the stylized polonaise of Bach’s time to assert a vigorous, at times militaristic, national identity.
Piano character piece. The mazurka was a Polish dance that by Chopin’s time had become an urban ballroom dance popular among high society in Paris as well as in Poland.
Short mood piano piece with beautiful, embellished melodies above sonorous accompaniments. Chopin’s initial conception of the nocturne owed much to the nocturnes by Irish pianist-composer John Field. Both composers also drew inspiration from the vocal nocturne for two or more voices with piano or harp accompaniment, so that the nocturne for piano was essentially a song without words.
Longer and more demanding than Chopins other one-movement piano works. He was one of the first to use this name for an instrumental piece. These capture the charm and fir of Polish narrative ballads, combining these qualities with constantly fresh turns in harmony and form.
Scherzo (piano)
Piano character piece. Chopin wrote scherzos but these were not joking or playful, as the title of the form implies, but serious and passionate. Yet they are tricky and quirky, which the term aslo implies, particularly in their rhythm and thematic material.
Piano Sonatas
Large scale piano pieces. Chopin wrote 3. All in 4 movements: sonata form, minuet or scherzo, slow movement and finale. Liszt’s technical innovations served both to display his skill and to allow him a vast range of expression and pictorial effects. His only sonata, in B minor, is a masterpiece of formal innovation, using four main themes in one extended movement subdivided into three sections analogous to the movements of a classic-era sonata. The themes are trasformed and combined in a free rhapsodic order, but one that is perfectly suited to the thematic material.
solo recitals
Liszt pioneered this term. He was the first pianist to give solo concerts in large halls. He was also the firt ot play a range of music from Bach to his contemporaries and to play entirely from memory, two innovations that are now long-standing traditions. His reception at times rivaled the hysteria affored rock superstars of the twentieht century, but he insisted on quiet while he played.
Eighteenth century orchestras were led from the harpsichord or by the leader of the violins, but in the nieteenth century, this role was tanek over by a conductor who used a baton to beat time and cue entrances. Although at first the conductor simply kept the orchestra together, by the 1840’s conductors were drawing attention to themselves as interpreters of the music, exploiting the Romantic cult of the ndividual. Conductors like Louis Jullien formed their own orchestras and becam stars on the same order ast he instrumental virtuosos.
Romantic Orchestra
Orchestras grew from about fourty players at the beginning of the century to as many as ninety at its close. Flutes, oboes, clarinets and bassons acquired elaborate systems of keys by midcentury, making the insruments easier to finger quickly and play in tune in most keys. Wind instruements with extended ranges, notably piccolo. English horn, bass clarinet and contrabassoon, were occasionally used in orchestras. Valves were added to horns and trumpets, allowing players to reach all chromatic notes throughout the instruments ranges and the tuba joined the brass section in the 1830’s. The greater variety of instruments provided a much wider range of colors and color combinations. Composers could now treat the winds and brass more as equals to the strings, often contrasting one secton with another. The new fully chromatic pedal harp was sometimes added, often played by a woman because of the harp’s long association with domestic music-making. Otherwise the orchestra players were usually all men and with rare exceptions-including a handful of all-women orchestras-that situation did not begin to change until the mid twentieth century, after women had won some equal rights and became more integrated enerally in the work forces of Europe and the Americas.
symphonie fantastique
By Berlioz. Program piece. 5 movements. Depicts the story of a composers passion aroused by his thoughts and fantasies about a woman whose love he hopes to win. He based the story on his own infatuation with the English actress Hariet Smithson. Beethoven had subjected the main theme in both his Third and fifth Symphonies to a series of exciting adventures,. Berliez followed this precedent in his device of the idee fixe (fixed idea), a meloldy taht he used in each movement to represent the obsessive image of the hero’s beloved , trasforming it to suit the mood and situation; at each poin in the story.
Harold en Italie
Berlioz’s second symphony. Title drawn from Lord Byron’s poem Childe Harold with the substance from recollections;of the composer’s sojourn in Italy. Features a solo viola and commissioned by Paganini. Paganini refused to play it because the solo was less prominentl than ina concerto. A recurring theme i the viola appears in each movement and is combined contrapuntally with the other themes.
Grande symphonie funebre et triophale
The Grand funeral and Triumphant Symphony by Berlioz. One of the first masterpiece band music. For military band, optional strings and chorus.
Leipzig Conservatory
Founded by Mendelssohn. Clara and Rober Schumann were both on faculty there. Mendelssohn had also been the music director and conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra.
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
Sister of Felix Mendelssohn. Composer of chamber works and only one piano Trio was published. This piece gained notoriaty and probably and probaby influenced Robert Schumann to write his own trio.
Berlin Singakademie
ONe of the first choral societies. Began as a singing class for wealthy women. In 1791 men were acceped as well, and the group gave its first concert. By 1800, under the direction of Carl Friedrich Zelter (Felix and Fanny mendelssohn’s teacher), the chorus had quitupled in siz to almost 150 members. Zelter added an orchestra to allow the group to sing oratorios, and by his death in 1832 the chorus had over 350 memebers.
St. Paul
Oratorio by Mendelssohn. One of the most successful of his oratorios. It his other, Elijah became standards in choral repertoire. Both were composered for choral festivals and recieved great acclaim in Europe and North America.
Treatis on Instrumentation and Orchstration
Berlioz’s first book codifying his practice of symphonic music. his Orchestration initiated a new era in which instrumental color rivaled harmony and melody as an expressive tool for composers.
The staple of smaller mixed, mens and womens choirs which parralleled to the Lied or parlor song. Like solo songs, these were also used in domestic music making. Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Liszt, Hensel and nearly every other compser in Europe produced these and choruses on patriotic, sentimenta, convivial and other kinds of verses. Nature was a favorite subject.
shape-note singing
Tradition in United States of shaped notes which were used in collections such as Kentucky Harmony, The Southern Harmony and The Sacred Harp. These shaped notes indicates somization syllables, allowing for easy sight-reading i parts. This notational system is an inventive American reconception of the syllables introduced by Guido of Arezzo
Giochino Rossini
One of the most famous and important composers of the Early Romantic period in opera. Wrote some the the most popular operas ever written. IL Bariere di Siviglia (The Barber of Saville), L’ Italiana inalgeri (The Italian Woman in Algiers). These were comic operas but during his lifetime his reputation rested on his serious operas such as Otello, Mose in Egitto (Moses in Egypt),;and Guillaume Tell (William Tell). He blended aspects of pera buffa and opera seria into both his comic and his serious operas, making them all more varied, more appealing, and more true to human character. Established the opera style bel canto meaning beautiful singing. His operas are known for there tunefulness combined with snappy rhythms and clear phrases. His arias are frequently in two sections, a slow, lyrical “cantabile” and a lively and brilliant “cabaletta”. In most of his arias we also find a middle section between the cantabile and the cabaletta called the tempo di mezzo (middle moevement), which is usually some kind of trasition or interruption by other characters and in which something happens to alter he situation oro the character’s mood.
bel canto
Operetic singing style established by Rossini. Means beautiful singing. The term refers to the elegant style characterized by lyrical lines, semmingly effortless technique, and florid delivery. In these type of operas, the most important element is the voice, even more important than the story, the orchestra oand the visuals.
songful, lyrical in a songlike style. Used int he operatic scen structure developed by Rossini in the early nineteenth century. The first section of an aria or ensemble, somewhat slow and expressing a relatively calm mood. The other sections are the tempo di mezzo (middle section or middle movement) and cabaletta which is a livelier style.
tempo di mezzo
Means middle movement. In the operas of Rossini, he established a style of two or three sections of an aria. Cantabile, tempo di mezzo and cabaletta. The middle section was usually transitional or an interuption by other charecters and in which something happens to alter the situation or the character’s mood.
In the operatic scene structure developed by Gioachino Rossini in the early nineteenth century, the last part of an Aria or Ensemble, which was lively and brilliant and expressed active feelings, such as joy or dispair.
Vincenzo Bellini
Was a younger contemporary of Rossini. Preferred dramas of passion , with fast, gripping action. Favorite librettist, Felice Romani. Wrote 10 operas but the most important are La Sonnambula (the sleepwalker), Norma and I Puritani (the Puritan).
Gaetano Donizetti
One of the most prolific Italian composers during the second quarter of the century. Composed oratorios, cantatas, chaber and church music, about one hundered songs, serveral symphonies and some seventy operas. His most famous of his serious operas were Anna Bolena and Lucia di Lammermoor. The opera comique La fille du regiment ( the Doughter of the Regiment and the buffo operas L’ elisir d amoure and Don Pasquale.
Grand opera

In France with the declie of royal patronage, a new kind of opera came into being, designed to appeal to the newly well-to-do middle-class audiences who thronged the opera theaters looking ofr excitement and entertainment. This type was a much spectacle as music, consistent with the fashion that had prevailed in France ever since Lully. Writers created librettos that exploited every possible occasion for ballets, machinery, chruses and crowd scenes, while flattering the middle class by painting aristocrate as wicked and their opponents as virtuous. Two early examples were Rossini’s Guillaume Tell featuring an onstage lake across which Tell rows to safety and la muette de Portici (the Mute of Portici);by Daniel Francois Esprit Auber which ends with the eruption of the vocano Vesuvius and ironically has a title role that is danced, not sung, since she is a mute.


Giacomo Meyerbeer
Leading composer of Grand opera. Meyerbeer’s Robert le diable (Robert the Devil) and Les Huguenois set the pattern for the musical treatment using every available technique to dramatize the action and please the public.
Opera Comque
Side by side with grand opera as being most fashionable. As in the eighteenth century, the technical difference between the two was that this had spoken dialogue instead of recitative. Apart from this the differences were primarily questions of siz and subject matter. Was less pretentious than grand opera and required fewer singers and players. its plots, as a rule, presented straightforward comedy or simi serious drama instead of the historical pageantry typical of grand opera. Two types of this genre: Romantic and comic.
German opera
Differs sharply from contemporary French and Italian opera. But its musical styles and forms draw directly from those oof other countries, while the use of simple folklike melodies introduces a distinctly German national element. These operas also display increasingly chromatic harmony, the use of orchestral color for dramatic expressionm, and an emphasis on the inner voices, in contrast to the Italian stress on melody.
Carl Maria Von Weber
His work, Der Freischutz (the Rifleman) established German Romantic opera. He used unusual orchestration and harmonies and used ordinary folk center stage, talking and singing about their concerns, their loves and their fears.
A genre of musical theater that combined spoken dialogue with background music. These had been popular in France and in German speaking areas since the 1770’s and scenes in melodrama had appeared in operas by Mozart, Beethoven and others. Was used by Weber in Der Freischutz (the rifleman).
Theatre d Orleans
Theatre group from New Orleans who were active between 1819 – 66. They performed primarily French and Italian operas in the original lanuages, giving many American premieres and touring the East Coast serveral times.
William Henry Fry
Son of a wealthy Phiadelphia family. Wrote Leonora which was sung throughout. Believed it was corruption to have spoken word in an opera Based his opera on the style of Bellini.
Most popular form of msical theater in the United States from 1830’s – 1870’s. White performers blackened their faces with burnt cork and impersonated African Amoericans in jokes, skits songs, and ances. Christy Minstrels was the most successful troupe. White performers playing lack characters had license to behave outside accepted norms and to comment candidly on social, political and econimic conditions. The minstel songs were not direct imitations of African-American music but did borrow elements characteristic of African and african-American traditions, from the banjo to cfall and response, in which a lead singer alternates with a chorus or with inchich white musicians have borrowed from the music of African Americans, one of the strongest and most distinctive strands of American music.
The French Revolution and Nap=oleonic Wars had helped to popularize the concept of a nation as a group of citizens with a common heritage rather than as subjects of a ruler. The influence of this idea continued to grow throughout the nineteenth century. In the political realm, it was the attempt to unify a particular group of people by creating a national identity through characteristics such as a common language, shared culture, historical traditions, and national institutions and rituals.
opera bouffe
French genre. Emphasized the smart, witty, and satirical elements of Opera comique.
Nineteenth century kinf of light opera with spoken dialogue originating in opera bouffe popular in Austria, England and the United States.
Spanish genre of musical theater, a light mythological paly in a pastoral setting that alternates between sung and spoken dialogue and various types of ensemble and solo song. Devised by Calderon during Baroque and was still popular during late Romantic.
Giuseppi Verdi
One of the greatest Italian opera composers. Wrote Nabucco, la traviata, Luisa Miller to name;a few. Had the most operas performed in recent decades.
Intalian term for true. Term used to describe an operatic parallel to realism in literature. Instead of treating historical figures or faraway places, this presents everyday people, especially the lower clases, in familiar situations, often depicting events that are brutal or sordid. Though-short lived, these had parallels or repercussions in France and Germany, and the veristic impulse lives on in television and movie dramas.
Giacomo Puccini
The most successful Italian opera composer after Verdi. The son of a church organist and composer, he was slated to follow his fathers footsteps but chose instead to focus on opera. Studied at the conservatory in Milan, attracted attention with his first opera in 1884. His third opera, Manon Lescaut catapulted him to international fame and established him as one of the rising stars of his generation. Used Wagner’s element of leitmotives in his operas. Wrote La boheme and Madama Butterfly.
Richard Wagner

German opera composer. ONe of the most crucial figures in niteteenth century culture. One of the most influential musicians of all time. His emphasis on music as the servant of drama, hsi use of leitmotives as an organizing principle and his chromatic harmonies had a profound and far reaching impact on many later composers. Born in Leipzig Germany.

Wrote. The artwork of the Future and Opera and Drama (books). composed The flying Dutchman, Tannhauser and lohengrin, Der Ring des Nibelungen, Tristan, Die Meistersinger van Nurnberg and his final work Parsifal.

(total or collective artwork). Wagner believed in the absolute oneness of drama and music – that the two are organically connected expressions aof a single dramatic idea. Poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music work together to form what he called by this term. The orchestra conveys the inner aspect of the drama, while the sung words articulate the outer aspect – the events and situations that further the action.
music dramas
Genre created by Wagner using leitmotives and creating a total unifying concept between action, words and music. This term was preferred by Wagner to refer to his music rather than Opera even though before developing the leitmotif he had written tow operas The Flying Dutchman and Tannhauser and Lohengrin.
Das Judentum in der Musik
(Jewishness in Music). Written by Wagner whic appeard under a pseudonym in 1850 and under Wagners name in 1869. Claimed that music drama could help reform society and that art should not be undertaken for profit. He was a musical and philosophical nationalist, claming that German art was pure, spiritual, and profound, as opposed to the superficiality of italian and French music. What drove him to write the essay, he explained to Liszt was his antipathy toward meyerbeer, whoes music he once admired and who had used his influence to help Wagner, but wagner turned against the elder composer when critics wrote how much Meyerbeer influenced his own music. Seeking ot establish is independence, Wagner attacked Meyerbeer’s music arguing that it was weak because he was Jewish and therefore lacked national roots, without which a composer could not have an authentic style. Wagner implied that the same problem affected Mendelssohn, whom he had revered in his younger days, despite mendelssohns conversion to Christianity.
lyric opera
romantic type of opera coming out of opera comique and developed into its own genre. Termed after the Theatre Lyrique founded in 1851. This genre lies somewhere between light opera comique and grand opera. kie opera comique, its main appeal is through melody. The subject matter is usually romantic drama or fantasy, and the scale is larger than that of the opera comique but not as huge as that of the typical grand opera. The most famous is Foust by Charles Gounod, first staged at Theatre Lyrique in 1859 as an opera comique (that is with dialogue), it was later arranged by the composer inits now familiar form with recitatives.

composed by Bizet. Cobination of exoticism and realism. It was set not in Asia but in Spain, considered as exotic by Parisians despite its proximity. Originally classified as an opera comique because it contained spoken dialogue (later set to recitative), it was a stark realistic drama ending witha tragic murder. That such an opera could be called comique shows that the distiction between opera and opera comique had become a mere technicality.

The Spanish flavor was embodied especially in the character of Carmen. Carmen is a Gypsy who works in a cigarette factory and lives only for the pleasures of the moment. Her suggestive costume and behaviour, her provocativesexuality and language, and Bizet’s music all characterize her as outside of normal society, making her both dangerous and enticing. Bizet borrowed three authentic Spanish melodies, including Carmens famous habanera L’amour est un oiseau rebelle (Love is a rebellious bird).

opera bouffe
Satirical operatic genre founded by Jacques Offenbach. A ligher genre than the seirous theaters controlled by the French governement. This new genre emerged in 1850’s during the Second Empire and emphasized the smart, witty and stirical elements of comic opera. In Offenbach’s Orhee aus enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld) he even introduces can-can dance for the gods. His work influenced development s in comic opera in England , Viennam, the United States and elsewhere.
Paris was also famous for popular musical theaters. Night clubs such as Chat Noir (Back Cat) offered serious or comic sketches, dances, songs and poetry often with the intent to foster innovation and draw together artists and the public.
cafe – concert
cafe’s that joined the food and beverage service with musical entertainment, usually songs on sentimental, comic or political topics.
Entertainment in large msuci halls such as Folies – Bergere and Moulin Rouge which were strugn together dances, songs, comedy and other acts often united by a common theme.
Russian Nationalism

When nationalism began to affect Russian arists, opera proved valuable as a genre in which a distinctive Russian identity could be proclaimed through subject mater, set design, cosumes, and music. Ironically, whil nationalism was a force for unification in Germany and Italy and for liberation struggles in austria-Hungary, in Russia it was primarly a tool of propaganda for the absolutist government under the czar.

When Czar Alexander II emancipated the serfs in1861, he did so as part of a broader effort to modernize Russia and catch up to Western Europe. There were two main approaches to modernization: the nationalists, or Slavophiles, idealized Russia’s distictiveness, while the internationalists or westernizers, sought to adapt Western technology and education This dichotomy has often been applied to schools of Russian comosers, but it is misleading, because all who composed operas, ballets, symphonies or sonatats were adopting Westrn genres and approaches, whatever their style. Rather, a distinction might be made between composers who pursued professional training in the Western mode and those who opposed accademic study as a threat to their originality.

A Life for the Tsar
First Russian opera sung throughout. By Mikhail Glinka was patriotic, pro-government drama 1836. Some of the recitative and melodic writing has a distinctive Russian character, attributable to modal scales, quotation or paraphrasing of fold songs, and a folklike idiom..
Mikhail Glinka
Russia’s first nationalist composer. Rcognized by both Russians and internationally as an equal of his Western contemporaries. Established his reputationin 1836 witht he patriotic, pro-government historical drama A life for the Tsar, the first Russian opera. Valued in the West for the Russian flavor of his operas, which satisfied Western tastes for both the national and the exotic.
Anton Rubinstein
Virtuoso pianist and prolific composer who founded the St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1862 with a program of training on the Western model. In Russia at this time, there were two types of approaches one was to train in the Western mode and those who opposed academic study as a threat to their originality.
Nikolay Rubinstein
Founded the Moscow Conservatory in 1866. Brother of Anton Rubinstein. Program was a training on the Western model like his brother. Their work raised the standards of musicianship all over Russia and ed to a strong tradition of Russian pianists, violiniss, composers and other musicians that continues today.
Piotr Il’yich Tchaikovsky
Not a part of Russian 5 but was leading Russian composer of the 19th century. Studied with Anton Rubinstein at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, was on its first students to graduae, and taught at the Mascow Conservatory for 12 years. Mad his living solely as a composer, aided until 1890 by a gernerous stipend from a wealthy and mysterious widow who he never met. Sought to reconcile the nationalist and internationlist tendencies in Russian music, drawing models from beethoven, Schubert, Schumann and other Western composers as well as from Russian folk and popular music. Wrote music for stage, including incidental music, ballets and operas. The Three most famous ballets include: Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty and the Nutcraker.
The Mighty Handful

Also known as the Mighty Five or the Russian Five. Stood against ily Balakirev, Aleksander Borodin, Cesar Cui, Modest musorgsky and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov. Only Balakirev had conventional training in music, but it would be wrong to call the other amateurs. They admired Western music but studied it on their own outside the academic musical establishment whose exercises and prizes they scorned. Incorporatd aspects of Russian folk song modal and exotic scales, and folk poyphony, but they also extended traits from the Western composers they most admired.

Balakirev was the leader of their circle and an informal teacher for the songs inhis own arrangements that were sources for many later composers. Cui completed fourteen operas, including four for childern but none entered the permanent repertory. Borodin, though devoted to music from a young age, was a chemist by profession and had difficulty finding time to compose. Left many works unfinished , including Prince Igor, a four act opera in the French grand opera tradition. it was completed after his death by Rimsky-Korsakov and Aleksander Glazunov and premiered in 1890.

Musorgsky was considered the most original of the the group. Earned a living as a clerk in the civil service and received most of his musical training from Balakirev. His two principle stae works were operas Boris Godunov based ona Pushkin play and Khovashehina (The Khovansky Affair). The realism so prominent in the nineteenth century Russian literature echoes especially in Boris Goduvov, int eh way Musorgsky imitated Russian speech, in ihis lifelike musical dipiction of gestures and , in the choral scenes, the sound and stir of the crowds.

Rimsky-Korsakov studied with private teachers and with Balakirev while pursuing a career in the Russian Navy. He became a professor at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, abandoning the anti-academic stance of the Balakirev circle. He quickly became aware of how much he still had to learn before he could teach music theory.

Bedrich Smetana
National Theater conductor in Bohemia (Czech Republic). Won state sponsored contest for the best historical and comic opera, The Bartered Bride.Created a Czech national style by using folklike tunes and popular dance rhythms like the polka and by avoiding many of the stylistic conventions of Italian and German opera.
Antonin Dvorak
Succeeded Smetna whoes twelve operas included plots based on Czech village life, Czech fary tales, and Slavic history. Most impartant are Dmitry and Rusalka (1900).
A new kind of light opera with spoken dialogue, originating in the opera bouffe of Offenbach – was manifestly an entertainment, in which nationalism was beside the point. It could be both funny and romantic, spoofing the conventions of opera yet using them sincerely when appropriate. The great masters of this genre in the generation after Offenbach were the Viennese Johann Strauss the Younger (1825-1899) know for Die Flendermaus (the Bat) and in England the team of W. S Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan. Sullivan wanted to be known as a serious composer but his Opera Ivanhoe was nowhere near the success of his collaborations with Gilbert, especially HMS Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado.
Johannes Brahms

Leading German composer of his time. Born in Hamburg to a family of modest means. Father played bass and horn in dace halls and local ensembles. Brahms studied piano, Cello and horn as a child and through lessons in piano and music theory developed a love for music of Bach, hayd, Mozart and Beethoven. Earned mony playing popular music at restaurants and taverns which fostered a lifelong taste for folk and popular music.

Wrote four symphonies, concertos, chamber works including seven works for piano and strings. Wrote many piano solo pieces as well as songs or Lieder. In addition he wrote choral works including his greatest choral work Ein Deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem) for soprano and baritone soloists, chorus and orchestra.

Fanz Liszt

1811-1886. The most astoundsting piano virtuoso of his era and one of t its most important composers. A child prodigy i Hungary and Vienna. As a young man he frequented the salons that formed the core of Parisian intellectual and artistic life. There he met many of the most notable writers, painters and musicians of the day. Was lover with the countess Marie d’Agoult and lived together in Switzerland and Italy from 1835 to 1839. Wrote for piano and orchestra.

Created programmatic genre symphonic poem. Wrote 12 symphonic poems each a one-movement work with sections of contrasting character and tempo, presenting a few themes that are developed, repeaed , varied or transformed. These pieces are symphonic in sound, weight, and developmental procedures and are poems by analogy to literary poems.

Devised a method of providing unity, variety, and narrative-like logic to a composition by transforming the thematic material to reflect the diverse moods needed to portray a programmaic subject known as Thematic transformation.

Wrote choral music including oratorios.

symphonic poem

Genre named by Liszt. Symphonic in sound, weight, and development procedures and are Poems by analogy to literary poems. Often the form has vestiges of traditional patterns such as sonata form or the contrasts in mood and tempo found in a four-movment symphony but was only a one-movement work.

The content and form was usually suggested by a picture, staue, play, poem, scene, personality, or something else, identified by the title and usually by a program.

thematic transformation
Technique devised by Liszt. method of providing unity, variety, and narrative-like logic to a composition by transforming the thematic material to reflect the diverse moods needed to partray a programmatic subject.
chromatic saturation

First appears in the works of Hugo Wolf who was best known for adapting Wagner’s methods to the German Lied.

The process where a measure of intense chromaticism;of all twelve chromatic notes appear within one or two measures.

Richard Strauss
(1864 – 1949) A dominant figure in German musical life for most of his career. He was celebrated as a conductor holding positions int he opera houses of Munich, Weimar Berlin and Vienna, and conducting most of the world’s great orchestras during numerous tours. As a composer, he is remembered especially for his symphonic poems, most written before 1900; his operas, all but one of which cme later and his Lieder.
The staple of the band repertory: a brief introduction, usually of four measures; two strains or periods, each repeated; a trio in a contrasting key, most often in the subdominant, with an optionnal introduction and two repeated strains; and then a da capo repetiton of the march up to the trio. The strains are typically sixteen measures long and often the second half of a strain varies its first half. The firs strain of the trio tends to be soft and lyrical in contrast to the other strains.
John Philip Sousa
Conducted the United States Marine Band (1880-1932). Raised it to national prominence through tours and savvy promotion. He organized his own band which made annual tours of the U S, serveral European tours and a world tour. Wrote more than a hundred marches, including his most famous, The Stars and Stripes Forever along with more than a dozen operettas and some seventy songs.
Tristan Chord
Chord used by Wagner which first appeared in Tristan and Isolde which was the first chord of the opera. (F B D# A). Was used as a pivot chord between two key centers throughout. Was later resembled by other composers such as Scriabin.