Sections of Orchestra
strings, bass, woodwinds, percussion
Roots of Art Rock
Classical Music and Musical Theatre
Strings, Bass, and Woodwinds are organized according to what?
human voice
Percussion SATB
S-soprano, A-alto, T-tenor, B-bass
Strings SATB
S-violin, A-viola, T-cello, B-bass
Woodwinds SATB
S-flute, A-oboes, T-clarinet, B-bassoons
Brass SATB
S-trumpet, A-french horn, T-trombones, B-tubas
timpani, snare drum, triangles, cymbals, xylophones,chimes etc
one of the top orchestras on the ratings and its conductor (maestro)
Chicago Symphony Orchestra – Sir George Solti
“The Great Gate of Kiev”
Modest Mussorgsky
Periods of Musical History
Strangeness, wonder, ecstasy – artistic work exists as a means of self expression – Stones/James Brown
order, poise, serenity, stability – artistic work exists in its own right – the form is of supreme importance – Aretha Franklin/The Beatles
______ appears or sounds to be freer, less inhibited than classic
Classic Composers
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven
Romantic Composers
Tchaikovsky, Brahms, Chopin, Liszt, Verdi, Puccini, Mahler
Musical Developments of Romanticism
before romantic age it was work for someone – birth of technical display – growth of the “mystique” of the composers – public demand for uniqueness, musical intuition, new ways of expressing feelings, exoticness – rise of musical nationalism
La Vaise
Maurice Ravels
Formal plan of Symphony
fast – slow – dance – fast
Sonata Form
(first movement form) Exposition, main theme, second or contrasting theme, development, both themes are used, Recapitulation, main and second themes, Coda (big finish)
The three things that will cause the best results for mixing classical and rock musical elements are:
Adapt a full classical work to a rock-style performance/Create a work for rock group and classical ensemble/ Using the musical language of rock, create an extended work or modeled after a classical form
Why do most attempts of bringing classical and rock music together usually fail?
most art rockers have an outdated and naive notion of what classical music was about in the 20th century -most were still stuck in the sounds and musical ideas of the 19th century
Moody Blues
first major attempt at art rock. rock ensemble with addition of orchestra. more sophisticated melodies
Nights in White Satin, The Voice, I’m Just a Singer (In a Rock and Roll Band), Your Wildest Dreams
Moody Blues
one of Professor Garwell’s Favorite Songs
I’m Just a Singer (In a Rock and Roll Band)
Deep Purple
heavy metal. more sophisticated vocal harmonization. jazz influence. “Burn” “Hard Road (Wring That Neck)” “Kentucky Woman”
some of the most effective blends of rock and roll and classical music ever achieved was by whom?
Keith Emerson (keyboards) , Greg Lake (Guitarist-vocals), Carl Palmer (Drums)
Leonard Bernstein
(1918-1990) MASS – A theatre piece for Singers, Players, and Dancers
the work required over 100 performers including choirs, soloists, rock combos, bands, a full orchestra and the Alvil Ailey dance troupe. All of the sections of the traditional Roman Catholic Mass are there, interspersed with non-tradition comments called tropes
A major legacy of Art Rock
Pink Floyd and “The Wall”
First musical to have nudity in it
Hair (1967) the first “rock musical” – 1,729 performances, brings together counterculture hippies and mainstream America (claude and the military)
Early Forms of musicals
the minstrel show, vaudevilles, burlesque, Broadway revue
The Minstrel Show
first musical experience in the US that wasn’t modeled after the Europeans
a big tease with women “taking off their clothes”
The first “so-called” Broadway Musicals consisted of:
Just skits or musicians, comedians, jugglers, etc
First Broadway or Mature Muscial
(1927) Jerome Kern’s Show Boat
unique because the following items all are drawn from an Edna Ferber novel: music, lyrics, staging, choreography, costumes, sets, lighting
A scene from Show Boat
William Warfield – Old Man River – Refrain (intro) and Chorus – Chorus:AABA, 32-bar song form – (Tin Pan Alley Song Form)
Rogers and Hammerstein
Blockbuster hit every 2 years, (The Sound of Music)
basic assumption of the mature musical
it is a “Theatre of Romance”
presents life as it should be – in costrast to modern mature musicals
Modern Mature musical
“Theatre of Realism” presents life as it is
Mature vs Modern Mature musicals
MATURE: theatre of romance, presented stories the audience wanted to hear, everything turns out all right in the end, being alive was well worth it. MODERN MATURE: presented stories that the audience doesnt necessarily want to hear, everything doesnt always turn out alright in the end, being alive can have unexpected consequences
Musicals since the 50’s (three types and examples)
mature (Tommy, The Producers, Hairspray) Modern Mature (Sweeny Todd) Mixes the two (Hair, Miss Saigon, Les Miserables
story of Eva Duarte Peron, illegitimate child becomes a B class movie star, marries Genreal and becomes the voice of America – Maddonna and Antonia Banderas (motion picture version) – dies of cancer very young
The “beer garden”
scene from Cabaret, rising movement of Nazism, the key scene in the whole movie
Mainstream Rock “the mantra”
music is not art, it is a big business.
out -either/or society.
in- multiple options.
Mainstream Rock “megatrends”
out -radio programming.
in -formatting a station to play one style of music.
art rock becomes progressive rock. jazz rock becomes fusion. soft rock continues. hard rock fragments into: basic hard rick, heavy rock, glitter or glam rock
Eric Clapton – Crossroads
12 bar blues and riff superimposed over the chord progression of the blues
Tonight’s the Night
Rod Stewart
Sir Elton John
Reginald Dwight. form Middlesex England. 1971-1976: 9 albums, 7 went to #1 on the charts and over a dozen Top 20 Hits. 45 albums total. Candle in the Wind-33 million copies sold – biggest selling single of all time.
a cross between southern rock or rockabilly and R&B. Down on the Corner
Sly and the Family Stone
a funky jazz beat and brass referred to as hornline. Life
Allman Brothers Band
adopted the southern rock sound. Bad Rain
formed in 1976, with the lead singer Paul Hewson also known as Bono. many improved musical skills especially when no one else thought they would make it. Even Better Than the Real Thing
Huey Lewis and the News
17 top hits. Stuck With You
Bruce Springsteen
Born In The USA (1984) first #1 Album. song of unemployment, social issues, the difficulties of Vitenam vets, frustrations at nothing being able to beat the establishment. the underlying conflict between the American Dream and the failure to meet it. started with the E Street Band – 24 albums. Land of Hops and Dreams
Mainstream Trends in the 1970’s and 1980’s
folk rock becomes singer-songwriter. country rock is also called progressive rock
the “jam band” phenomenon
electic groups bringing together country, folk, bluegrass, rock, jazz and some punk. “jam” sessions can also be seen listed as alternative. live performance and improvisation is the key. downloading and bootlegging is permitted and encouraged by bands. Widespread Panic, Disco Bisquits, Phish (one of the most eclectic)
similar to the Greatful Dead – never been in the top 10. together for 21 years until 2004. two years later in 2006 went on a tour together. The Story of the Ghost. Fikus. Water in the Sky. Ghost
The Dave Matthews Band
also been referred to as the alternative to alternative. intentionally eclectic. clearly rooted in blues, jazz, and world music (african). mix acoustic guitars, violin, and jazz instruments. “cerebral” yet its commercially appealing
Bob Marley
(1945-1981)The Wailers. hurt his foot playing soccer – found out he had cancer – didnt do anything about it- died three years later
The Wailers
Bob Marley. Bunny Livingston. Peter Tosh (McIntosh). got together at 16 years old. original name – Wailing Rudeboys. copied other people’s songs until they had their own. One Love/People Get Ready
Reggae was born in Jamaica in the mid 19__’s
The birth of reggae in the US was in 19__.
Rastafarian Beliefs
determination, rebellion, justice, repatriation of Africa
Royal Oil and Noise Brigade
Mighty Mighty Bosstones
Carole King
soft rock. wrote a lot of hits with ex-husband. 2nd solo album Tapestry (1971) reached #1 on the charts and stayed on for 302 weeks. So Far Away. I Feel the Earth Move, It’s Too Late
James Taylor
soft rick style with a touch of country; and at times…jazz. Don’t Let Me Be Lonely Tonight
fusion music
basically artists who added rock to their sound ex: Earth Wind and Fire
Earth Wind and Fire
Synthesis of soul, funk, R, gospel, and African music…with a jazz base. complex rhythms, smooth and well-harmonized vocals, and tight ensemble playing. 8 consecutive albums reaching #1. Getaway. Let’s Groove
New Age Music
heavily electronic,sedative in nature in contrast to stimulative music. Tangerine Dream and Mannheim Steamroller
Billy Joel
3rd biggest selling artist ever (CDs) 77.5 million to date. classically trained pianist. Movin’ Out – musical based on his music. Keeping the Faith
Willie Nelson #1 song
You Can’t Just Play a Sad Song On a Banjo
The three Outlaws
Willie Nelson, Merle Haggard, Waylon Willy
Categories of Country Music
Hillbilly’s (1920’s) WEstern Swing and Cowboy Songs (1930’s) Bluegrass(1940’s) Nashville Sound (1950’s)
Contemporary Country
pop country/country rock [considered romantic]. Hard country (neo-traditionalists) [more traditional]. mixed country (a fusion of the two) also called middle-of-the-road
Honky Tonk themes
Love, Work, Drink,Women, Men, Loneliness, Dreams, Us and Them, Patriotism
Keys to the Success of Contemporary music
The americanization of Dixie and the southernization of America. rediscovery of the admirable nature of the south
1920’s- music of the poor, rural, uneducated southernor. Alternative to jazz, blues, gospel, and pop. wholesome family-syle. twang
Cowboy songs and Western Swing
jazz instruments and acoustic strings
Every Time You Say Goodbye
Alison Kraus and Union Station
1945 – Bill Monroe and the Bluegrass Boys. Pioneer and namesake of style. ensemble: guitar(s), banjo, fiddle, mandolin, steel guitar and piano added later
Nashville Sound
1950’s – determined attempts to go national. selectivity in new releases. use of pop elements (orchestra, backup singers etc.) studio musicians used
studio musicians
group that would go from one record company to another and play the backup music
Hello Darlin’
Conway Twitty – Nashville Sound
Contemporary Country 1970’s.
hard country or neo-traditionalists, pop country/ Country Rock, Contemporary Country
Hard Country
Ricky SKaggs, George Strait, Dixie Chicks, LeAnn Rimes, Alan Jackson. neo-traditional because intruments (guitar,steel guitar, fiddle, drums, piano) harmonies, vocal quality (pronounced) themes and lyrics (traditional keeping honky tonks alive)
Pop Country/ Country Rock
Alabama, Barbara Mandrell, Shania Twain, The Eagles, The Band. Instruments(electronic technology), harmonies(more sophisticated), vocal quality(not as extreme – little twang), lyrics and themes(more contemporary bc the times were different)
Contemporary Country
middle of the road performers:mixing pop/rock and hard country (fusion of styles). Garth Brooks,Reba,Brooks & Dunn, Willie Nelson
Contemporary Country (1990’s)
TNN in 1992 – more than twice the viewing audience of MTV. from 1991 to 1994, unprecedented number of country artists on pop charts
King of Country in the early 1990’s
Garth Brooks.
1992 Garth (NBC) vs Michael Jackson (CBS)
Jaskson – 66th in rating for the year.
Brooks – one of the top then rated shows of the year
in 2001 ___ ____ became the top selling artist in history. Over ___ million albums sold.
garth Brooks. 100