“deeply felt” profound, or tending to feel deeply
Paradox of intensity
feeling about music; impossible to express; but we try to anyway
5 modes of communication
Linguistics; Socio-gestral ; iconic; logico-math; musical
Anthropological and Sociological
two approaches to popular music
Anthropological approach to pop music
The approach is participant observation. Cannot make judgement until observed. Ethnography,
describe what you observe – reflexivity , mindfulness, awareness of assumption and biases; limited generalization
Sociological approach to popular music
Materialism, matter take priority over mind- Marxism – abstract
– cultural industry
– textualism
– meaningless exotica
– moral outrage
Traveling teachers that gave speeches, they have great memories, their speeches were like advertisements for their service
Three Basic Truths
the contingency of language ( language is dynamic, it changes)
– Language is constitutive or reality ( reality is meaningful)
– Language is differential ( meanings of different words, can’t understand yes without understanding no)
The study of how signs and symbols (representation) influence people to do and think things that they would otherwise not ordinarily do or think
Kirschner on the study of popular music also the things that make rock “rock”
textual mobility
spatial mobility
Cosmopolitan ethnography
escapes localized uniformity by mapping the “motion of music making” across multiple regions,abstract and geographical
– difficult abstract way of thinking of popular music
Texts between texts
– idea that no one text is desecrate but rather immediately cues to another text
A set of significant symbolic events, musical and music related, that occur together in the perception of a listener and that function to frame listening experiences
Concept map
way of explaining what goes on in people’s head
Study of signs
Relations: connection between two objects
Structures: when relations combine, collection of relations
Systems: collections of structures
Unit of semiotics = sign
Sign comprised of two halves:
signifier: representation of the concept; the words (diet coke)
Signified: concept ( the image of te diet coke in your head)
Adjectival codes
a cluster of key adjectives that consistently reappear in the discussion of music or genres
band with unique sound they make up their own sort of genre; still a genre just a different kind
Karl Marx
developed idea of communism, later known as socialism
known for:
– revolutionary politics
– and methods fo thinking
(Marx) systematic way of understanding culture
– back and forth thinking, among parts and wholes
– also back and forth thinking to get ultimate truth
changed the meaning of dialects to a logic
Hegel’s views
– human reality is premised on a logic of dialectic
– affirmative force = thesis
– negative force = anti thesis
– “mind before matter”
labor is the most important kind of mediation
– a borad sense of labor which is both physical and mental
the way in which people are disconnected from the system
* marx thought capitalism thrived from this
Origin of Political economy
Adam smith
– a bad economic system
– civil society
– commerce and liberty
Civil society
protected private interests of people
* depended on interplay of commerce and liberty
* only unlimited commerce would maximize prosperity
– free from restriction or control
Positive liberty
right to do what you want to do
negative liberty
freedom to be left alone
absolute liberty
right to do what you want to, an to be left alone
relations of productions
relationships of power in an institution
– hierarchical relations among people in an organization
symbolic value
the magic element of value: increase transaction value by making the object scarce
Political economy in media studies
the study of how political or ideological logics influence economic production
– Circuit of Capital: production, distribution, and consumption
collective beliefs; attitudes and values of a given group of people
– common sense
– infrastructure
– refers to the material arrangement of society
– natural resource
– most resources belong to private enterprises
– culture
– an expression of the base
The culture Industry
the idea that our culture is manufactured for us; we do not create it, capitalism does
One should focus on the interplay of text and context
– to understand the rhetoric of music, we should focus on the interplay of text and context.
wrote about The Grain of Voice
– something that we can point to in music that gets us out of the tyranny of the adjective
– enjoyment
– connotation of orgasm
– feeling beyond the language to represent pleasurable pain
where language and body meet
– the body speaking the mother’s tongue
The totality
The biggest context for thinking about any commodity
– the big picture approach
symbolic value
– magical powers to an object that in and of itself is not magic
– principle means by which alienation occurs
– obscures the labor history
Political economy
sociological or material approach to study of mass media
– focus on industry
– focus on production, not consumption
Civil Society is self correcting through:
– competition
– greatest good for the greatest number
– the hidden hand
Ontology of music
(attali) Conception of noise
– noise is music before it becomes music
– noise is music before it is recognized as such, once it is recognized it is no longer noise
– resists categories of meaning
Ritual (genealogy)
music is inseparable from everyday life, it is living
– no concept of music or art
– ecstatic
Sacrifice (genealogy)
Music represented as music
– musical notation
– music becomes autonomous
– absolute music
Repetition (genealogy)
technology (of musical notation allows one to represent sound on a page)
– portability
-sheet music
– recording
Composition (genealogy)
Highly individualistic
– making music for self
– not yet realized
Regressive listening
Adorno: culture industry teaches us how to listen by an appeal to basic pleasure
– listen for the chorus
– infancy
Anthonio Gramsci
-Socialism requires democracy
– academics abet the ruling class
– hegemony
the ability of the ruling class to impose its ideology on the subclasses without force
Louis Althusser
Posthumanist (post marxist)
– no direct relationship between thebase and the superstructure
– rejections of humanism
– rejected intention
– rejected determinism
– interpellation
understanding of how we assume ideologies
– how it becomes common sense
Hailed by ISA’s (ideological state apparatuses)
– you are the sum total of your ideologies
– Althusser thought ideologies are who you are, content of our subjectivity
Dick Hebdige
wants to combine sociological and anthropological approaches.
– culture
-style as resistance