a piece of music’s tune
notes that you sing that go along with the words.
gives context to melody
chords in the background of the melody
thought of as being played in a happy way
thought of as being played in a sad way
aka home key
established at the beginning of a song.
first chord in a song.
gives a sense of tension between itself and other chords.
makes u want to return to it.
5 chord.
a chord that makes u yearn for the tonic chord
4 chord.
a chord that makes you yearn for the tonic chord
minor 6
a non-tonic chord.
creates yearning to get back to the tonic chord.
a pattern of pulses that is created by either strong or weak notes in the melody or harmony.
the mood or governing emotion of a song.
there is usually a connection between affect and cultural context.
indians and music
would do things such as work to rhythms.
also used music to heal and torture.
used music for a purpose.
first Spaniards in America
thought of different as bad, so thought of indians as lesser beings.
only thought of music as an art, and had no other purpose.
set up churches where they settled, and played very complex music.
major groups to first settle in america
spain went to central america and california.
french went to canada.
protestants went to us east.
Ignacio de Jerusalem
An Italian born composer who went to Mexico.
He is a Mexican Baroque composer.
He created music in Mexico City, which would make it all the way to California.
“many sounds”
2 or more independent melodies going simultaneously.
applied to Spaniard’s music, as it was very complex.
Martin Luther
challenged standard Catholic practices.
said that repetitive, weekly rituals weren’t spiritual.
rituals should be pleasing to the senses.
The Calvinists
leader is John Calvin.
said that relationship is just between person and God, and that priest should just tell you what to think.
emphasized reading the bible and made singing accessible to the masses so that not only choirs could do it.
The Pilgrims in 1600’s
The were Calvinists who wanted religious freedom.
brought the Ainsworth Psalter with them.
created homophonic music, which is when they stay together, and music is “step-wise” so it is easy and notes are close to each other.
Ainsworth Psalter
brought to america by pilgrims in 1600’s
had about 150 psalms in it, but only contained about 30 songs.
Most songs had the same “idea” so different tunes could be used for one set of lyrics.
“old hundred”
one of the easiest and simplistic songs in the Ainsworth Psalter.
Bay Psalm Book
Pilgrims eventually ditched Ainsworth Psalter b/c songs were too complex.
after creation, feud between ppl who wanted complex music, and ppl who wanted simple music.
Moravian Settlers
Started in Czech Republic and went to Germany and eventually Bethlehem, PA b/c of executions.
had anthems, which are more complex than a hymn, and are meant to be sung by a choir and not the masses.
secular music in colonies
usually played at ppl’s houses, which implies they had money for instruments and could afford a teacher.
gender-specific instruments in the colonies
women usually played harp, harpsichord, and tambourine, and were forbidden from playing the oboe and flute.
slaves with music talent in colonies
used to entertain homeowners and guests.
homeowners would also play duets and junk with the slaves.
operas in the colonies
operas and most music was made in Europe and brought to America b/c it was considered prestigious, and made ppl remember their home.
most popular music in the colonies.
a song that tells a story.
secular music that was played in public, usually by Protestants on the east coast.
done in strophic form.
poems can also be referred to as ballads if they tell a story.
strophic form
how ballads are written.
words change, but the melody repeats itself through the verses.
ballad doesn’t need a chorus.
broadside ballad
colonies would print them on sheet music and sell them.
seen as cheap commodities.
a chord that sounds “wrong” so you want to go back to the tonic.
dancing in the colonies
very popular throughout the colonies.
purists said it was immoral.
protestants thought of it as a fun recreation to interact with the opposite sex.
Knowing european dances (usually between 2 ppl of opposite gender) showed a sign of social status.
over time, grp dancing became popular.
dance halls and theaters
ppl from england would tour the colonies with their shows.
puritans said they were immoral b/c of cross-dressing and sex jokes.
music in between shows.
everyone went b/c it was cheap and people would shout, throw tomatoes, etc. at the actors.
ballads up to and during the american revolution
they were often political in nature.
about current events.
traditional ballad
ballads that weren’t written down, and were only learned through listening to it.
americans copying ballads
would take european ballads and change the lyrics so they either support america or make fun of england.
“Gypsie Laddie”
heard by Elisha Bostwick from a scottish prisoner.
only wrote down part of song b/c he wanted it to stay traditional and not become a cheap commodity.
music played during american revolution (in army)
drum and fife.
played during battle.
used to keep the marching pace and boost troop’s morale.
used to give out army commands b/c easier to hear than shouting on a battlefield.
has a dotted rhythm, so has fast beats with strong notes in a set interval.
eventually written for concerts and not meant to be marched to.