to bring to life
2 things that animation needs….

1 – Illusion of motion

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2 – physical presence

1 minute of FILM (24fps)
1,440 fps (frames per second)
1 minute of VIDEO (30 fps)
1,800 fps (frames per second)
Cel Animation
cartoons like Scooby-doo with a still background and moving characters in the forefront
Cel Rotoscoping
drawing that is pretty much like tracing over real images and footage.
Stop motion / Claymation
examples include “The Nightmare before Christmas”
Eadweard Muybridge

“Animals in motion”


“Humans in motion”

two very important published books because they are still used today as an animators reference

The Humorous Phases of Funny Faces

by J. Stuart Blackton

It was the first animated film.

Gertie the Dinosaur

by Windsor McKay

this was the first animated character with human personality traits

Steamboat Willie

by Disney

it was the first animated film with synchronized sound

Multi-plane camera
Invention by Disney that gave depth to animations.
produced effects for 1970’s TV and film… it was also the first analog video computer



The 1st movie to use computer generated imagery (CGI)
Star Wars
1st movie to use 3D graphics
1st movie that used CGI in the environment with the actors
The Last Starfighter
1st movie with photorealistic CGI
Jurassic Park
1st movie where stop-motions animators worked with computer animators
digital input device
Toy Story
1st computer animated cartoon movie
Final Fantasy series
1st movies to use realistic computer generated actors
detailed sculptures used in the pre-production process of animation
the process in creating the sculptures in the computer or assembling the 3D objects
lines that digitally trace in CPU using shapes. (building blocks for models)
Lighting adds….
depth and dimension;
a flat image that wraps around a sculpture to add more dimension. it makes it more realistic.
where start and end positions are created… the computer creates the movement between the two points by filling in the spaces
Motion capture
recording a human performance to use as part of the animation process
Particle Effects
points in a 3D space that are animated based on physics
converting 3D data to 2D data (is the most time consuming)
a network of computers used simultaneously to render
layering separate rendered images of computer graphics with live action
Computer Rotoscoping

Cuts the computer generated character into the scene to make it look like they;re there, trims the character to make him fit dimensionally, frame by frame


Samuel Morse
telegraph (morse code)
Alexander Graham Bell
the telephone


(advanced research project agency)

4 university computers connected to the internet in southwest US in 1969 and it was government funded.
domain name system (replaces the IP address with a name instead of a numbers)

(hyper text transfer proto-call);

used for HTML sites

and has ONE way communication


(file transfer proto-call)

online file sharing

TWO way communication

ended the sponsorship of the government funded internet use in 1995. the limitation of commercial use ends.
frequency range
amount of data per second
the foundation of most LANs
Bitmapped / Raster
fixed at a resolution (TIFF ; BMP ; GIF ; PNG)
JPEG compression…
compresses into a smaller file
Object Oriented / Vector

drawn using math formulas to resize the image without losing any of its original quality…

EPS , CAD , and animation software

Uncompressed audio

wav : microsoft

AIFF : apple

BOTH of these contain raw audio data

PCM (pulse code modulation)

– sample rate = 44.1kHz (CD standard)

– quantization = 16 bit (CD standard)

Video formats

AVI (audio video interleave) ;Microsoft;

ASF (advanced system format) ;Microsoft;

MOV (quicktime movie format) ;Apple;

VOB (video object) ;DVD;

MP4 ;MPEG Organization;

compresses data for either hardware or software
Common standards for encoding / decoding AUDIO


WMA (windows media audio)

AC3 (Dolby)


Common standards for encoding / decoding VIDEO


WMV (Windows media video)

True-motion VP7 (Flash)


designed for 352 X 240 resolution @ 30fps

used in progressive video


(MPEG1 – layer 3)

breaks sound into 576 frequency components. Up to 48kHz sample rate in stereo
Perceptual Noise Shaping
works on the principles that we hear certain frequencies better than others… when sounds occur, we mostly perceive the louder sound.
handles interlaced and progressive encoding and was designed for NTSC (480i)
interactivity… scalable for internet and broadcast… supports multi-channel (like surround sound)
Authoring Software
software that allows for synchronizing elements of a multimedia project without knowing code. (iWeb)
Compact Disc Media

distinguished by different colored “books”

CD-DA (digital audio) is RED book

original standard CD held 650MB but todays CDs hold up to 700MB

DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) Media

books differ by letter

(DVD Video is book B)

DVD can hold up to 17.9GB

Region Codes
used to control movie release dates across different continents.
CD (780nM) and DVD (650nM)

track recorded from center to outside of disc.

When laser changes = 1

when laser does NOT change = 0

Blue-Ray Disc

25GB per layer

it supports 1080p and additional video and audio formats

Emile Berliner
first to record to the phonograph (invented by Thomas Edison) in 1887. Used a 78rpm flat disc.
created in 1935 in Germany… it used magnetic tape to record. The magnetic tape was just iron oxide particles “glued” to tape
Jack Mullen
brought the magnetophone to the USA
Bing Crosby
1st to use tape for productions… which became the standards by the 1950’s
Les Paul
developed the 1st multi-track tape recorder with Ampex
Executive Producer
handles business arrangements for artists during sessions
responsible for the creative process
responsible for the technical aspects
Assistant Engineer
Facility staff… responsible for making a session run smoothly (AKA the 2nd Engineer)
Studio Manager
manages the studio and the clients 
Operations Manager
handles business and payroll
Studio Technician
repairs equipment
makes copies, vacuums, makes coffee… basically anything that needs to get done around the studio.
A & R
(Artists and Repertoire) locate and develop artists. Kind of like a talent scout.
the most critical part of a project that ensures everything is set up and ready for use.
Recording the core elements of a song
adding new material to something that was already recorded… (could be vocals, guitar solos, or backup vocals)
Blending all the sounds together 
preparing mix masters for various format releases.
Balanced Wiring

uses 3 conductors

eliminates interference

used professionally

Unbalanced Wiring

uses 2 conductors


the level between maximum level and nominal level
Signal to noise ratio
the levels between nominal level and noise floor level (the lowest)


(input-output module)

Sets levels for MTR and receives signals from MTR
Channel Path
Console to MTR
Monitor Path
MTR to Console
Master Section

global control over I/O’s

has a talk back system (mic into booth)

has the master fader

Cue System
Artists headphone mix
Auxiliary System
allows for effects to run through the console
is like the studios central nervous system