drama with religious subject but not liturgical purpose

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not staged with costumes and sets

in english, feature choruses

during lent 

Messiah- text is from bible, recitative to accompanied recitative to recitative to accompanied rec. to chorus

focuses on contrast between two musical ideas or groups of ideas, one for solo and one for orchestra

function is to return as many times as stable element of the form

at beginning of many kinds of baroque msuical forms 


composition for orchestra with solo instrument, contrast between orchestra and soloist

concerto grosso

contrast between orchestra and small group of soloists


variation form

form in which a single musical unit is repeated over and over with constant changes and embellishments

successive, uniterrupted repetition of one melodic unit 


concerto in g, op4 no 12

rit, ground bass, rit



systemized imitative polyphony

polyphonic composition for a fixed numebr of instruments

exposition: over when all introduce subject

subject entries


theme=fugue subject 

fugue subject

theme that is the basis of a fugue, appearing in each voice in return

appears again and again in each instrumental voice 


art of fugue

interested in long, melodious episodes that come between subject entries 


melodic idea that is played against a primary subject of a fugue

contrasts the fugal subject 

fugue episode
part where there the subject is not present, or is only present in a fragmentary form
when a voice enters with the fugue subject before the previous voice has finished presenting it

a tune that when sung by multiple voices at regular intervals apart can provide accompaniment for itself

liek a round 


symphony no 95

sonata, variation, minuet trio, rondo


rondo form

brings back theme completely and in the same key

used mainly for closing movements

main tune recurs again and again after episodes that serve as spacers between its appearances

like rit but brings bakc entire thing not just fragments 

classical variation form

repetition of clearly defined melodic unit, or theme with various changes at each repetition

create many contrasting moods with same theme 

minuet form


triple meter

minuet, trio, minuet (aba) 

third movement of haydn symphony



4 movements

always begin with sonata form 

sonata form

opening movement of a symphony

exposition, development(highly dramatic, confusion), recapitulation (can contain coda, big cadence with short concluding section=coda)


5th symphony

sonata, variation, coda, scherzo (triple meter) and separated by trio, sonata

 c minor

chamber music

music designed to be played in  aroom


2 to 9 players

beethoven- string quartet 

program music

instrumental compositions associated with poems, stories, etc.

other mediums of art 

beethoven, haydn, mozart, schubert

fantiastic symphony

program music

idea fixe, dies irae


idee fixe

fixed recurring melodic idea that crops up through berlioza fantastic symphony


dies irae
day of wrath, portrays death, illustrates emotion

romantic song in german for solo voice and piano accompaniment

means song in german 


viennese composer

erlkonig- lied

through composed 

through composed

stanzas not all set to same music




german composer

dichterliebe – lied


strophic- music matches words for all stanzas 

song cycle
group of songs with a common poetic theme or actual story connecting all the poems
when music for verses all the same for each stanza

symphony no 40

sonata form