created by vibration traveling through a medium (air) to the ear of the listener
a sound-producing vibration that oscillates (beats) at a definite and prescribed rate of speed. Example: the pitch A = 440 MHz
(beats per second)
the distance in frequency between two
pitches, either upward (higher) or downward (lower), — might be described generally as ‘large’ or ‘small,’ or much more specifically by a variety of culturally-based systems
natural phenomenon dictated by the physics of sound; fundamental property of sound recognized by all musical cultures

an octave is the interval between two pitches, the frequencies of which are in a 2:1 mathematical ratio (i.e., the higher of the two pitches vibrates at twice the speed of the lower)

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pitches that are one or more octaves apart are given the same letter name in Western music theory

Equal temperament
the man-made division of the octave into 12 equal intervals—the man-made division of the octave in 12 ‘half steps’
Names of pitches
a, b, c, d, e, f, g
Later called a scale – a collection of specific pitches that emphasize one particular pitch, called the FINAL or a series of specific intervals, usually written down (for theoretical purposes) or practiced (by a musician) as spanning one or more octaves
a pause or ‘resting place’ in music, often on the FINAL, a place where the harmonic tension in the music relaxes to some degree
he instruments, voices, or anything else that makes
sound and takes part in music making
—a.k.a. ‘instrumentation’ (but don’t forget about the voices!)
—Some particular types of ensembles became standardized within a given culture and become associated with more-or-less specific social settings, functions, or musical styles.
a specific category of musical composition as defined by its musical
characteristics or traits: for instance, a Gregorian chant, a string quartet, a symphony, an art song, etc.
Composition (piece or work)
Any work of art may be referred to as a ‘composition’ without making
reference to the work’s specific genre. SONG is a more or less specific genre, and not every piece of music fits into that category. Be careful how you use that term in this class!
the person who actually creates the original musical conception, often
(but not always) in a written (i.e., notated) form, not often the one who plays it.