occurs when a wave travels through a medium whose density changes slowly with distance causing the sound wave to bend and move in another direction
Occurs when sound wave hits a porous surface and the energy is stopped.
(i.e. skin, pillows, clothes, and other soft gushy things like that)
Occurs when waves form two diff. sources and exist simultaneously in the same medium. Waves may reinforce one another (constructive interference) which will produce an increase in amplitude. If waves cancel out each other (destructive inference), there will be a decrease in amplitude. Complete cancellation is very rare in nature.
Beating phenomenon
Occurs when 2 sound sources of slightly diff. frequencies are sounded together. This occurs because of interference.
Whenever a system that can vibrate with a certain frequency is acted on from outside by something of the same frequency, and thereby produces a larger amplitude

(i.e. singing in the shower when you hit a certain note, and it just rings perfectly and loudly, or breaking a crystal glass with your voice)

Resonance frequency
Frequency of a system set into vibration
Sound decay
Over time, amplitude of vibration diminishes and approaches zero
Sound envelope
Graphic representation of the decay curve of sound
Initial transit
Point of displacement or putting energy into the system
Sound that is aperiodic, and has enharmonic overtones
Creation of sound waves at their source and how they travel away from the source based on musical instrument construction
Standing wave
Produced by the regular & repeated displacement of a stretched string, causing waves to appear motionless
Reverberation time
time required for the original sound to decay to the point of zero intensity with no additional sound energy
Process by which sound is transmitted from the environment to our brain
messengers of the brain and nervous system. Sound waves are changed into electro-chemical energy by neurons so we can ‘hear’ it.
Transduction of Energy
altering the form of energy
Outer folds on either side of the head which funnel & amplify sound down into our ear
Ear canal/meatus
Closed pipe that traps air with resonance frequency of 2,000 to 7,000 Hz
Tympanic membrane
Ear drum, entrance to the middle ear
Middle ear
bony chamber filled with air containing 3 small bones called ossicles
Located in middle ear. Hammer, anvil, & stirrup.
Oval window
Barrier to inner ear
Acoustic Reflex
serves to prevent loud sounds from getting to the inner ear and boosts amplitude of the middle frequencies
Eustachian tube
connects middle ear to oral cavity, equalizes air pressure
Inner ear
located deep in the head and protected by the hardest bones of the body
Semi-circular canals
contain oval window and filled with thick fluid; gives us our vestibular sense
Vestibular sense
sense of balance
Spatial orientation
sense of body position in space
organ of hearing, functions as transducer of mechanical energy of vibration into electro-chemical energy of neuron transmission
Cochlear duct
runs through the center of cochlea
Basilar membrane
bottom of cochlear duct
Organ of Corti
30,000 audiocilia hair cells
Afferent nerve bundles
signals sent away from nerve bundle t the brain
(Afferent = Away)
Efferent nerve bundle
Influencing mobility of hair cells under different listening circumstances
Place Theory of Pitch Perception
Theory of how pitch perception is coded based on specific frequencies displacing basilar membrane at a greater amplitude in reply to a specific frequency because of resonance

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(Say whaaatt? This definition is jacked.)