Bach’s two career paths
Cantor – church musician
Kapellmesiter – court musician
Bach’s 3 major positions (dates, place, post)
1708-1717 – chamber musician – Weimar
1717-1723 – kapellmeister – Cothen
1723-1750 – cantor – Leipzig
Bach’s tonal stamp for instrumental works
I V relative IV I
i v i
Ped brief Ped
When was the WTC published?
after he died
Clavier Ubung – four parts
Vol. 1 – 1731- 6 Partitas
Vol. 2 – 1735 – Italian Concerto, French Overture, several toccatas
Vol. 3 – 1739 – all organ works, choral preludes, some large preludes and fugues
Vol. 4 – 1742 – Goldberg
works specifically written for the harpsichord
Italian Concerto
French Overture
Goldburg Variations
Glenn Gould
tempos – not regular
famou for Goldburg recording
intensely opinionated
small range of interest in musical periods (no Romantic)
Rosalyn Turreck
wrote short books on performin Bach
big on consistency, articulation
less extreme
hears all voices, thinks contrapuntally
Andras Schiff
excellent contrapuntal clarity
bad: rhythmic flexibility
Numbering system
Opus – work (opera=plural)
Schmieder – Bach Werke Verzeichnis
S=BWV (numbers interchangeably)
Dover Edition
bought rights to tings out of copyright
problems: hard to read, bad quality
often good prefaces/appendices
editorial additions in gray
Willard Palmer – conservative in style and performance practices
good for new teachers
Henle Edition
German industrialist w/music hobby
good quality paer and layout
good editing
“blue fuzzy edition”
bad reputation
romantic editors
slowly improving
Early Compositional Period
Models=south & central German
Pieces in early compositional period
Sonata in D Major
Capriccio on the departure of his most beloved brother
D minor toccata
Aria varied in the Italian style
G major toccata
Middle Compositional Period
1717-1723 Cothen
teaching music focus
Bach’s methods of teaching
another name for Preambula
Clavier Buchlen
for Wilhelm-Friedemann
1723 – began writing inven. and sinf.
preambula – inventions
fantasias – 3 prt. inventions/sinfonias
purpose of inventions and sinfonias
to learn a singing style of playing and composition
subject stated in every voice
breaking the subject into motives and playing developmental
real answer
an exact transposition
tonal answer
answer with alteration to make intervals work
inventions (2 part) derived from which two people?
Kuhnau and Fischer
Inventions (2 part)
canon, fugue, simple imitative counterpoint
Alfred – good edition
Key Scheme of inventions
Cc Dd EEflat e Ff Gg Aa Bflat b
start w/white keys (major and relative minor – don’t use B major, add Eflat and B flat
Teaching C major
slide=filling in of a melodic third
tonal movement – T D rel min. sDom T
off beat nature of subject
rote teaching – imitation, steps, notice finger pattern, start on differnt key, RH and LH experimentation, hands together, mirror in Lh what doing in RH;
Score TEaching
identify subject, play just the subjects, fingering, hands separately, hands together importang, find subjects and inversions, more study as intellectual exercise, the more they take it in
main note, note below
main note, note below, main note (not restricted to 3 notes
note above, main note, note below, main note
prefix from below
note below, main note, note ablove, main note, trill
D minor inventions
trills: rotating wrist – play 16th notes instead of 32nd (matches LH)
A minor
subject is in the tonic 4 times!
B flat major invention
study on a turn and its inversion
turns: go after the middle note of the turn
c minor invention
adaptation of a canon
F major invention
practice BH playing the same notes
b minor invention
wo voice fuge (exception – it starts out w/another voice)
has a real answer
f minor invention
2 voice fugue and a double fugue b/c the countersubject is equally as important and presented at the same time
e major
contrary motion, syncopation, and study on mordents