Set of beliefes, standards, and principles that guide action.
An organized educational plan that inclueds program goals, objectives/concepts, ways of evaluation (test construction).
Conceptual Framework
a set of objectives that can be experience, abstracted, and transfered.
a general idea or principle that can be transfered to new material. It is essential: cannot be broken down much more.
philosophical system
A theory/ school of thought on how to impliment philosophy.
Metaphysic: Reality is spiritual or mental and unchanging

Epistemology: Knowing comes from latent ideas

Hire a custom writer who has experience.
It's time for you to submit amazing papers!

order now

Axiology: Values are absolute and eternal. There is a standard to beauty

Logic: Deductive

Metaphysics: Reality is objective, composed of matter and form. Fixed and based on natural law.

Epistemology: Knowing consists of sensation and abstraction. Knowing comes from the senses

Axilogy: Values are absolute and etrnal based on nature’s law.

Logic: inductive/ deductive.

John Locke’s blank slate theory

Metaphysics: Reality is the interaction of individual with their environment, it is constantly changing

Epistemology: Knowing results from experience. Scientific method.

Axiology: “Beauty is in the eye of the beholder” “Situational ethics” values should be freely choosen

Logic: Inductive

Metaphysic: Reality is subject to existence preceeding essence

Epistemology: Knowing comes from making personal choices

Axilogy: Values should be freely choosen

Logic: Inductive

What is real?
How do we know?
What do we value? What do we believe?
deductive logic
There is one source of knowledge that we all pocess. Learning comes from rethinking latent ideas.
inductive logic
Learnig comes through the senses we come to know things by figuring them out
Idealistic Educational Theory:
Aim: to educate the useful and competent person
cur: basic education: reading writing, arithmetic, history, english, sicence, foreign languages.
Implications: Emphasis on skills and subjects that transmit the cultural heritage and contribute to socioeconomic efficency.
Realistic Theory:
Aim: to educate the rational person
Cur: subject matter that is hierarchically arranged to cultivate the intellect (great books)
Educational Implications: focus on enduring human concrns as revealed in great works of the Western cultural heritage.
Proponents: Adler, Bloom
Pragmatic Theory:
Aim To educate the individual according to his or her interests and nees
Curriculum: Activities and projects
Implications: problem solving and group activity type instruction. Teacher as the facilitator

Proponents: Dewey

social reconstructivism
Pragmatic Educational Theory:
Aim: to reconstruct society
cur: Social sciences used as reconstructive tools
educational implications: instruction that focuses on significant socioeconimic problems
Proponents: , Brameld, Counts
Pragmatic Educaitonal Theory:
Aim: To educate the individual according to his or her interest and needs
Cur: Learners actively create meaning from their own construction of concepts about reality. Knowlege is shaped by a person’s prior experience.
Educational: “hands on” learning
critical theory
neo-marxism/ post-modernism educational theory:
Aim: to raise consciousness about critical issues
Cur: Autobiographies about oppressed peoples
Implications: focus on social conflicts
Proponents: Mclaren, giroux
teaching units
Advance organizer
Learning (activity) level
components of curriculum
Concepts, Skills, and Repitoire
components of lesson plan
National Standards, State Standards, Conceptual Objective, Behavioral Objective, Matterials, Assessment/ Evaluation, Procedures
music’s meaning is conveyed through music as appending something to musical sound, it is nonmusical because it is primarily conveyed through something other than musical sound. Nonmusical meanign results from musical sound representing a person, place, thing, or idea. Two different types: Referentialists expressionists
antonomists: values music because of its intricacy (formalist) meaning that one derives from music is purely musical or intrinsic, a function of the actual musical sounds and their interactions.
belief that music’s meaning is derived from its references to or imitations of nonmsical things
music has meaning because it expresses the emotions of the composer, the text, and/ or the performer.
absolute expressionism
(formal expressionism) balance between heteronomists qand outonomist. Music has intrinsic qualities taht make it expressive. Imitation or reference to things outside of itself are optional, but not vital to the value of music.
magerian objective
Is a behavioral objective that is specific to a given concept. Given… the student will be able to (skill)… with _% accuracy
gronland objective
A general behavioral objective:
Subject free
aesthetic education
Study of the beautiful. Enhanced expression of the world that we know.  Tools to enjoy it.  Quality of Life.
intrinsic/ extrinsic philosophy
Intrinsic Philosophy: Value for its own entity. Extrinsic philosophy: use for another purpose. Valued as instrument to accomplish something else.
Woods Hole Conference
1959: unified efforst of distinguished people in various fields addressing themselves to the general improvement of educaiton. music joined aesthetic disciplie based on these principles.
Ten imperative Needs of Youth
1944: Muisc under aesthetic appreaciation: arts, music, and lterature.

1. Occupational success
2. Good Health
3. rights of a democratic citizenry
4. Conditions for sccessful family life
5. wise consumer behavior
6. understanding of science and the nature of man
7. Aesthetic Appreciaiton
8. Wise use of leisure time
9. Respect for ethical values
10. the ability to think rationally and communicate thoughts clearly

Swings of the Pendulum
1894/1896: NEA: Committe of Ten Established a curriculum hierarchy. Mental Discipline Theory
1918: beginning of progressive movement. Cardinal principles of secondary education.
1944: Ten Imperative Needs of Youth
1957: Sputnik 1 (Vice Admiral Rickover)
1958: the National Defense Education Act: push of science/ mathematics/ modern languages/ guidance
1959: Woods Hole Conference
1965-1970: Existiential movement in education (desegregation, focus on underpriviledge education) preceeding critical theory
1980: neo-essentialism: A Nation at Risk. the well being of the nation is being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity
1990: Goals 2000:
Latent Knowledge
Knowledge that we all have that through exprience we “rethink it” and come to know
Theory of reminiscence
“rethinking latent knowledge”
Committee of Ten
The significance of the Committee of Ten was its contribution towards liberalizing the high school by offering alternatives to the Latin and Greek classic curricula and the belief that the same subjects would be equally beneficial to both academic and terminal students.
Cardinal Principals
1. Health
2. Command of fundamental processes
3. Worthy home membership
4. Vocation
5. Civic education
6. Worthy use of leisure (aesthetic education)
7. ethical character
Idealist. Emphasized order and stability through subordination. Value system of enduring importance.
400 bc
Idealist: philosophical idealism and political conservatism trend. Education should cultivate moral excellence.
Questioned people because it brought out knowledge from within
Deductive reasoning
346 bc
Idealist: Classifying people based on intellectual abilities.
Ed/Cur: Reminiscence of latent ideas. music, gymnastics, geometry, astronomy, basic literary skills
Wrote 36 dialogues

education tied to civic political purposes.

Realist: view of society based on classic realism
Father of conceptual learning
Experience, abstract, concept
Human Nature: rationality should guide conduct.
Objective/ Scientific emphasis: basic literary skills, mathematics, natural and physical sciences, philosophy.
Well-rounded person; importance of reason.
436-322 bc
Pragmatist: oratory for personal gain and public service
Human nature: use of speech for social and political improvement.

Use or rhetoric in a truthful manor.

teacher education has both content and practice dimensions. basic literary skills
Founded sophist, traveling teachers

progressive pragmatist:
Rhetoric for personal gain and public service
role of motivation in learning and recognition of individual differences.
Cur: basic literary skills grammar history, literature, drama, philosophy, public speaking, law.
Conservative realist:
Christian theology and aristotelian philosophy
HN: hamans possess both a spiritual and physical nature.

Cur: based on human nature, with appropriate studies of both spiritual and physical dimensions

Cont. Teacher as moral agent; education related to universal theological goals.

educator as social and intellectual critic.
HN: study of results of history
Cur: ed for literary elite
Cont. higher education in literary and social criticism; emphasis on critical thinking.
Reformed theology stressing salvation by faith and individual conscience.

HN: saved by faith; conscience shaped by scripture and reformed theology.

Cur: vocational training. elementary schools to teach reading, writiting, arithmetic, religion; secondary schools to prepare leaders by offering classics.

1. Father of modern education
2. Object lesson, use of an object to teach.
3. Teaching in venacular, influenced pestalozzi and rousseau
4. Pansophism

Cur: Universal knowledge (classics)
RTeacher: facilitator
Significance: educational method incorporating sensation
Influence: underlying shared knowledge will gain peace
Whole child advocate

1. Fathe of naturalism
2. Noble savage theory
3. Wrote “Emile” stages of growth
HC: French Enlightenment
P.Ed: learning environment that allows innate natural goodness to flourish
Cur: Nature, the environoment
Significance: forerunner of child-centered progressivism.
Influ: Noble Savage Theory survival of fitest

Born Good society corrupts

1. Educator of senses and emotions
2. “Leonard and Gertrude” novel
3. General and special method
HC: early nineteenth beginnings of industrialism.
P.Ed: develop moral, mental, and physical powrs. Use sense perceptionin forming clear ideas.
Cur: object lessons: form, number, sound (sensation, abstraction, symbol)
M.Inst: reliance on sensation, concrete to abstract
Influ: conceptual teaching. General method: child needs basc needs before learning environment.
1. Lesson plan
2. Advanced organizer
3. Teacher observation based on prescribed method.
4. Devised Ed. Method based stressed seq hi tail organization
5. Easy to advanced, logical sense.
HC: mid-nineteenth centure rise of philosophy and psychology in europe
Ped: Develop many-sided interest and moral character
Cur: history and literature
M.Inst: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, application.
R.Tech: prescribed sequence in teaching
signif: sequential organization of instruction and moral character development
Cont: preparation, presentation, association, generalization, application (testing)
graphic organizer
Essential question
1. Spiritual essence
2. Method- self activity
3. Socialization
4. Preschool designed to liberate child’s creativity
5. Created kindergarten

Nineteenth century rise of nationalism
Cur: songs, stories, games, gifts, occupations (follower of pestalozzi)
M.Ihst: self-activity, play, imitaiton.
R. Tech: facilitator
Significance: kindergarten, creativity
Spirituality core of human nature
Gift: object Occupation: objects that you can make other objects out of.

1. Promoted social Darwinism
2. Scientic method.
3. Caters to bright child
4. Survival of the fittest completion.
HC: Darwin’s theory of evolution and rise of nineteenth century industrial corporations
P.Ed: enable people to live effectively, economically, and scientifically.
Cur: practical, utilitarian, scientific subjects.
M.Inst: sensation, scientific method, and activiites
R. Teach: Organize instruction in basic activiites
Significance: scientific knowledge
Influ: stresses science and competitive values

Survival of the fitest/ law of jungle/ competition the key to progress)

1. Experimental philosophy
2. Social reform, via community experiences
3. Scientific method
4. Reject indivdual competition
5. Child curriculum.
Historical Context: American progressive movement rise of pragmatic phlosophy
Cur: Making and doing: history geography, science problems
R.Tech: learing environment based on learners’ shared experiences
Signif: pragmatic experimentalist philosophy of education
Influence: problem solving and activities in context of community

progressive social reform: The child and the curriculum (explains chicago curriculum)

Reorganizing, reconstruction, transforming

HC: first half of twentieth century, period of massive immigration and urban change.
P.ed: assimilate immigrants into American society while preserving their ethnic cultural heritages
Cur: practical skills for urbania along with arts and sciences and problem solving
M.Inst: neighborhood needs to broader social realities and connections.
R.Tech: mutual learning experience with students reciprocal
Signif: multicultural education
Influ: respect for cultural diversity and pluralism
teaching seen as a social mission
Worked with children especially orphans
Prepared environment
The great lessons
Developed early childhood method.
HC: early twentieth century assertion of freminism
P.Ed: prepared environment used to develop sensory, muscular, and intellectual development.
Cur: motor and sensory skills
M.Inst: spontaneous learning for practical life
R.Teach: facilitator
Signif: develop widely used early childhood education method
Children work without rewards or punishment
HC: twentieth century developments in psychology freud, hall, ung
Cur: Concrete and formal operations
MInst: exploration and experimentation with concrete materials
R.Teach: organize instruction according to stages of cognitive development
Signif: formulated theory of cognitive development
Influ: schools organized around cognitive developmental stages
Constructivism: known to an unknow to new known.
HC: Late-twentieth-century critique of neocolonialism and globalism
P.Ed: exploitative conditions awarness.
Cur: literary circles and critical dialogues
N.Inst: personal and group autobiographies
R.Teach: stimulate awarness
signif: formulated theory and praxis of critical consciousness
Influ: critical theory and liberation pedagogy
empower opressed to transform reality (the real world).