what is the range of normal speech
habitual pitch level doesnt exend range of p4 or p5
define habitual and optimal pitch levels in speaking?
habitual pitch level is the limited range a person uses to express themselves in everday speech while optimal refers to the range of pitches that a person can speak with quality using least amount of effort
the lower limit of ones optimal speaking range begins where and extend where?
beings on lowest singing note and extends up a p4 or p5
describe the quality of a speaking voice too high or too low?
too high-tight and breathy
too low-growly and hollow
speaking at too high a pitch level resutl is what kind of vocal problem?
vocal nodule and hoarseness
how are the problems of speaking at too high a ptich level similar to the problems of singin in too high a vocie classification?
they effect the vocal mechanism in the same way causing the voice to suffer vocal strain, loss of range and eventually nodules and irreversible damage
name 4 areas of vocal technique that dpend most strongly to ones ability to coordinate various function
extending vocal range, tone quality,developing flexibility and agility, achieving a balanced vibrato
define resonance inducing speech sounds
a speech sound that stimulates vibrations
name 3 factors that affect ones ability to sing higher or lower
energy, space or depth
which of these factors in singing refer to both breath support and breath control
defin resonance inducing a speech sound?
a speech sound that stimulates vibrations
maintaining a pre yawn position as you open your mouth to sing higher creates internal space. this helps you to do what 2 things?
proper laryngeal position and tune your resonators
as the pitch goes higher, its a natural tendency for the voice to thin out and whiten in color. why?
natural tendency of larynx is to rais with higher pitches
explain the concept of adding “depth” as pitch rises
refers to actual sensations of depth in the body and vocal mechanisms and mental concepts of depth as related to tone quality
name 3 things 2 avoid in singing high notes?
reaching up mentally physically, and tuching the upper abdominals
what are the 2 way that vowels must be aligned
through horizontal and vertical vowel alignment
describe them
horizontal process of moving vowel to vowel on same pitch while maintaining consisted tone quality
vertical process of moving up and down the range on one vowel or a sequence of vowels
how does the central or neutral tongue position contribute to maintin phonemic identity?
allows the tongue to move with ease of motion to articulate vowels and consonants
what does mckinney say are the 2 cardinal errors when making large upward leaps
they take a large intake of air right before th high note that disrupts the flow of tone, and take a breath right before the note that result in too much breath pressure
to crescendo on a lower note before moving to a higher note changes what factor in singing higher?
to sing from a higher note to a lower note you should connect the 2 notes smoothly and feel the lower tone more in the chest, dark and fuller than the upper. true or false
tucking ones chin is helpful when singing lower notes true or false
how many segmants do men and womens voices have
men -2 women-3
what are the called
men- chest/head women-chest/middle/head
mckinney believes that the appearance of segmants in the voice is due to what
changes is resonance adjustment
the resonance system is adjusted in some way for every different vowel and every different pitch. true or false
in order to avoid static adjustments and to avoid obvious resonate adjustments how should these adjustment be made?
by carefully graduated changes
what is cover?
refers to tone quality rich round and mellow
when a sound is too ‘open’ how does it sound>
yelly and spread
what is meant by the phrase being too covered>
too dark and back in the throat
what 2 things produce a brassy chest voice?
depressed larynx and constricted throat
because if the ptich level and its relationship to the first format, the effects of vowel modification are not as apparent to the listener in the female voice as they are in the male in the upper transition true or false?
What is the average vibrato rate and its average pitch vibration?
avr-5-7 vibrations per second
apv-a half step
what are the 3 faults related to vibrato
rate , extent, respiratory energy
2 main cause of vibrato problems
tension in the laryngeal mechanism and imbalance in breath support
3 kinds of vibrato faults
bleat, straight tone, wobble
what is the difference between voiced and unvoiced consonants?
voiced consonants involve vocal fold vibration unvoiced dont
how are vowels identified
they are a phenomena of resonance and crested by different frequencies
what is the primary factor in determining the realtionship between the 2 resonating cavaties and primary differentiatorof vowels
what vowel meet the requirement for a central or neutral positon of the tongue and what is it called
schwa e
why is it important to maintin phonemic identity?
so that you may be able to communicate meaningfully through understandble diction
what the 2 goal of artistic singing
be heard and understood, create beautiful sound
all movements of articulators should be executed how?>
quick precise and positive
what affect does pulling back the lips have on the sound
makes it bright
which is more important internal or external space
what is the most important articulator
what is the best resting place or poin of reference for the tongue?
the gum ridge of the bottom teeth
the tip of the tongue does not move to change vowels true or false
firm consonants help the singer establish and maintain good, solid tone production of the vowels true or false
define steady states of vowels
posture of each vowel is established immediately as long as possible in the duration of the note value assigned
vowel purity must not be comprimised in order to achieve uniform tone quality from top to bottom true or false
vowels tend to become more neutral in character as the pitch rises through vowel migration. what does this mean?
front vowels migrate back towards the center and back vowels migrate front towards the center
lack of good legato in singin is what kind of fault
articulation fault
how would you tell someone to sing legato
articulate the words while singing in a manner that would maintin a consistancy in tone and sound quality
what is the correct motion for ones jaw to open in singing
down and back