process by which the joing product of the vibratorand the resonators is shaped into recognizable speech sounds through the muscular adjustmants of the speech organs
what are the primary articulators?
tounge, lip, jaw
what are the most important identifying charecteristics of vowels?
unrestricted speech sounds, capable of being sustained,normally are voiced but can be whispered,carries the tone, definite shape or form molded by articulators
why are vowels said to be a phenomena of resonance
result from a complex series of relationships between the oral and pharyngeal resonators which vary in change of size, shape, and surface of walls
what is primary determinant of differentiating a vowel?
the tounge
what are the different groups of vowels?
front and back, stressed and unstressed, tense and lax
front vowels?
highest point in the arch is the front of the tounge.
back vowels
highest point in the arch is the back of the tounge
according to Wise, what is major difference between certain vowels?
difference of cavity pressure produced by tensions of the muscles of the mouth and throat
principal of making some syllables in words more important than others
what are the 4 different levels of stress
primary, secondary ternary and weak
what vowel meets the requirement of central or neutral position of tounge
schwa e
what is a phoneme?
set of speech sounds in any given language that serve to distinguish on word from another
phonetically distinct articulations which can be substituted for each other
what is the difference between a phoneme and an allophone?
a phoneme is a family of sounds in a given language and 2 sounds that cant be interchanged without changing the meaning of the word
an allophone is when sounds can be interchanged without changing the meaning of the word and native speakers dont realize that different allophones are being used
what is the best asset a singer can have?
an ear capable of making fine discriminations in the sounds of the language in which he is singing
what can happen if a singer obsesses with the phonemic purity of certain vowels
the singer can rob their voice of its beauty
what are 2 marks of artistic singing
twin goals achieving tonal beauty and preserving phonemic identity
how does the singer act as a musical instrument
since there are no keys or valves, the singer must learn to depend on their own mind and body as singing guides, and out of all instruments has the ability to communicate meaning throu
how does the singer act as a musical instrument
since there are no keys or valves, the singer must learn to depend on their own mind and body as singing guides, and out of all instruments has the ability to communicate meaning through word and tone
what are the several meanings of articulations?
one to express oneself fluently and clearly distinguish syllables well enough to be perceived
what are the 2 basic principles which contribute to effective use of the articulators?
all movements from the articulators should be quick, precise, and in singing the articulation movement must be exaggerated
what is the first step in articulation?
to imagine that all your articulary movements are taking place just in front of your mouth
how should a singer use their lips for articulation?
they must be free from tension and ready to move as needed.
what happens when you pull back on your lips?
tightens the pharynx in the vicinity of the soft palate, causing the sound to be bright
what happens when you pull your lips against your teeth
tends to darken the tone quality and make the voice sounds muffled due to lack of space
what is the ideal condition of the jaw for articulation?
beginning of yawn position
true or false: if the musicles which raise the jaw are relaxed, the jaw will drop down freely
how should you practice a full and easy opening of the mouth
start with a beginning of yawn to free the jaw from tension letting it drop down of its own weight and saying or singing “yah yah”
what are 2 kinds of resonance space in the mouth
external and internal
what is external space?
it is created in the front of the mouth and is controlled by the amount of mouth opening
internal space?
created in the back of the mouth and controlled by the action of the jaw joints
true or false: it is possible to elevate the larynx during the beginning of the yawn?
false it is not possible
what is the point of reference?
the tongue’s resting place,singers best idea of it seems to be the gum ridge just belwo the lower teeth
why is it important to practice finding their tongue’s point of reference?
to make sure the tongue does not conflict with the vocal mechanism..a.k.a pulling back depressing the larynx
what are the 2 reasons that a consonant should be put of firmly?
consonants are subordinant to vowels and dont carry as well, and frim consonants help the singer to establish and maintain good solid tone production
what are the 3 kinds of consonant?
intial, medial, and final
true or false? an initial consonant can make or break the vowel sound?
what happens if the initial consonant too slow or weak
if over into it is too slow, tension in the articulation may carry over into the vowel. if it is too weak, the vowel may be weak.
is the median as crucial as as an intial one?
no…since the tone is already underway but it is important to not upest the flow of tone
what is one fact that is often overlooked by singers with consonants?
many consonants require 2 distinct movementsof the articulators
why is the vigorous movement to return so important in initial and final consonants initial
with initial it clears the way for a good vowel, and with a final it removes the habit of ignoring or slighting them
what is the basic building material of vocal tone/
why does the articulation of vowels and consonants have to be quick and precise?
to establish and maintain a consistent channel through which the tone can flow without unnecesary variations of quality and quantity of sound. this is legato.
what does the “steady state” of the vowel mean
the posture of each vowel is established immediately and maintained as long as possible in the duration of the note value
true or false: vowel purity must not be comprimised in order to achieve uniformed tone quality from top to bottom
what happens to vowels during vowel modification?
front vowels tend to migrate back toward the central ones and the back vowels tend to move forward toward the central ones.
what happens to singers who resist the tendency of the vowels to migrate and insist on singing ” pure vowels”
vocal problems like loss of quality, tight phonation vocal strain
how are some ways to approach vowel modification?
by allowing more space in the upper register,by thinking the vowel toward which you are modifying, while migrating all vowels should be colored with ‘ah” or “uh” in the upper voice
what are 2 approaches that articulation faults can be directed?
from articulator involved and from speech sound involved
faults related to the articulators?
hypofunctional and hyperfunctional use
what is hypofunctional use of the lips, jaw or tongue refer to?
failing to maintain enough tonus or mobility in them
what are some procedures to help fix hypofunctional use
sing in front of mirror, excersises which recquire lip jaw or tongue action with exaggerated movement “yah yah”, sing as if someone is reading lips, alternate pulling and pushing lips to increase mobility
what is hyperfunctional use of lips jaw and tongue
demanding too much tension or physical activity from them
what are faulty speech sounds a result from?
its from the articulators not functioning properly or from the lack of a proper concept of the sounds
what are the 2 terms that appear frequently in refferring to the speaking voice
habitual pitch level and optimal pitch level
habitual pitch
limited pitch range within which a person customarily expresses himself for everyday speech
optimal pitch
level of pitch withing which a person can achieve the best quality or quantity of sound for the least expenditure of effort
where does normal speech tends to lie
within a range of a perfect 4 or 5
the singers____ often coincides with the lower limits of his optimal pitch level and his best _____ speaking range starts around that note
lowest good singing note, speaking range
what are the 6 headings of speech faults
articulation, breathing, support, pitch, quality, quantity, and rate
what are faults related to pitch
speaking too high, too low,at a restricted range, or stereo typed pitch patterns
what happens when the speech level is too high?
tight and penetrating
what happens speech level is too low
sounds growly and hollow
what are the faults related to quantity
speaking too softly, loudly or too much variation
faults related to pitch?
speaking too fast, slowly, or with too much variation of pitch
What are the 4 functions that are dependent on vocal technique?
extending the vocal range to maximum potential,developing consistent vocal production throughout the range, developing flexibility and agility, achieving a balanced vibrato
true or false. singing is a natural process
false, it is a highly skilled art and requires developed muscle reflexes
what is vocal development is the result of?
careful and systematic of both songs and vocal excercises
what are the purpose of vocal excersises?
warming up the voice, extending the range, lining up the voice vertically and horizontally, correcting vocal faults, acquiring vocal technique
true or false? it is a good idea to warm up your voice gradually before you try to sing anything very demanding
what is an important goal of vocal development?
to extend the range
what are the factors that affect the ability to sing higher or lower
energy,space, depth
how do you use these factors?
as you sing from the bottom to the top of your voice there should be a continuim of carefully graduated changes in the amoungt of energy space and depth being increased in small increments
what is the first rule in singer higher?
use more energy!
what is energy
refers to the total response of the body making sound by using the support mechanism
what is the second rule of singing higher?
use more space
which helps maintin correct layrnx position and tune the resonators
beginning of yawn/internal space
the third rule to singing higher is ..
more depth
what are the 3 ways of lining up the voice?
through vowels, registers and resonance
what is the ideal vocal tone?
balanced distribution of high and low partials
what are the 2 vowel skills for lining the voice?
vertical vowel alignment and horizontal vowel alignement
what is horizontal vowel alignment?
tongue operates from a neutral position to the position of other vowels on the same pitch
what is a good excersise?
what is vertical vowel alignment?
singing throughout the range on the same vowel, random sequence of vowels
what are some secrets in singing ‘high’ notes
make a legato connection to the high note from the lower note immediately preceding it, if the lower note is long enough, crescendo on it BEFORE mocing to the high note, dont think of the upper not as high just think it needs more energy
true or false? any woman can sing high notes in falsetto
true thats why young mezzos get classified wrong early
what helps camoflauging register changes?
when does chest voice sound too brassy?
when there is an elevated larynx and constricted throat
what is the vibrato rate?
5-7 beats per second
what are the 3 type of vibrato problems
bleat,ocean wave, straight tone
how is bleat vibrato caused?
by pulling in on the abdominal muscles vocal fold not staying in a continuous phonation by not grabbing and releasing
what is the main cause of straight tone?
laryngeal tension
is their any vibrato in straight tone?
yes but hardly
what are the 2 causes of wobble
lack of physical excersise and vocal excersise