Art Song
The musical setting of a text by a composer for solo singer and piano.
Romantic Period
The Style of music that was prevalant from about 1820-1910
The German Word for “Art Song” Plural is lieder.
Through Composed Song
A song that contains no repetition of lines of music.
Franz Schubert
(1797-1828) Austrain composer who marked the beginning of the Romantic period. He wrote over 600 lieder.
Felix Mendelssohn
(1809-1847) German Composer who was an early prodigy just like Mozart. His perfomance of St. Matthew’s Passion signaled a resurrection of the interest in the music of J.S. Bach. The high point of his career was the performance of his oratorio Elijah in England.
Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel
(1805-1847) German composer, older sister Felix. She is mainly known for smaller scale compostitons some of which originally apperaed under her brothers name.
Instrumental pieces in a moderate tempo and accompaniment reminiscent of rocking a cradle
Character piece
A short keyboard work expressing a mood or idea, composed during the Romantic Period
A short instrumental work stressing some technical aspect of playing the instrument
Fantasie (Fantasia)
A free sounding instrumental work
A short piano compsition in a style that sounds improvised
A type of nineteenth century character piece for piano, origianl
A short instrumental work.
A performers slight devation froma short tempo
An independent work for piano composed during the Romanitc Period.
An adaptation of musical work for an instrument or voice for another instrument or voice, or for a group of either.
Frederic Chopin
(1810-1849) Polish compoer who moved to France. Known mainly for his piano music. He was called the poet of the piano.
Niccolo Paganini
(1782-1840) Virtuoso violinist who developed a technique that overwhelmed audiences. He fostered a Satanic image which attracted a lot of publicity. He established the mould of a perfomer that could hold an audience in his hands with his showmanship and virtuosity.
Franz Liszt
(1811-1886) Hungarian composer who was influenced by Paganini. He was the most famous musician in the world then gave up touring to become a composer. At the end of his life he became a clergyman and wrot sacred music. He created the symphonic poem.
Robert Schumann
(1813-1856) German composer. At an early age he injured his hand and had to give up dreams of becoming a concert pianist so he turned to composition. He was a master of character pieces for piano as well as many other forms. He established a musical journal that led to the discovery of serveral great musicians including Brahms and Chopin. He died in an insane asylum.
Clara Schumann
(1819-1896) German composer. Was the daughter of Robert’s piano teacher. Her compositions include smaller works. She was a virtuoso pianist and after Robert’s death, developed a close realtionship with Brahms.
Music and bodily movements combined for artistic purpoes.
Concert Overture
An overture not associated with an opera or drama.
Fixed Idea (idee fixe)
A theme that is transformed at various places in a composition.
Incidental Music
Music composed to be performed in conjunction with a drama.
An instrumental introduction to a vocal work or an orchestral suite.
Program Music
Instrumental works assiocated by the composer with an extra-musical idea or object.
Program Symphony
A multi-movement programmatic work for orchestra. Tells a story
Theme Transformation
The alteration of a theme that retains its characteristic intervals of melody or rhythm pattern.
Tone Poem (Symphonic Poem)
A sizable orchestral work of program music.
Hector Berlioz
(1803-1869) French composer. His symphony fantastique was a pioneer work in the area of program music and theme transformation. He was also a music journalist.
Piotr IIich Tchaikovsky
(1840-1893) Russsian Composer. Did not become a professional musician until the age of 23, He is best known for his ballests but he also hightly regarded for his symphonies and operas. His best known work is the Ballet, THE NUTCRACKER.
Bel Canto
Literally “beautiful song” in Italian. Often it refers to a style of opera in the first part of the nineteenth century that featured much vocal technique and beautiful singing.
A motive or theme that is associated with a particular character or idea in the music dramas of Richard Wagner.
Music Drama
The term Richard Wagner used for his opera in which he tried to strike a balance between the muisc and the dramatic action.
Realism in Opera. Operas about everyday people.
Giuseppe Verdi
(1813-1901) Giacomo PuccItalian opera composer. He became the most popular Opera composer in the world during his lifetime.He was considered a hero by the Italian people. He has more operas performed on a regular basis than any other opera composer.
Giacomo Puccini
(1858-1924) Italian opera composer. He was the successor to Verdi as the most popular Italian composer of his time. Although he has fewer operas performed he ahs some of the most successful operas of all time. He had a wonderful gift for melody and drama.
Richard Wagner
(1813-1883) German opera composer. He wrote his own libretti. His operas are in German and are based on German mythology. THe first performance of his four operas comprising The Ring of the Nebulung was the musical event of the 19th century.
A compostitional technique in which the note value of a theme are all lengthened proportionally.
The proportional reduction of all note values in a theme.
Johannes Brahms
(1833-1897) German born composer who spent most of his time in Vienna. He as a conservative Romantic composer. He never wrote any program music or opera.
Antonin Dvorak
(1841-1904) Bohemian composer. He moved to America to teach music and encouraged American composers to use Native American and African American music to establish an Amercian Style of music.
A deliberate conscious attempt to develop art works that are characteristic of a particular country or region
the presence of two or more meters at the same time.
Whole-tone scale
A scale in which the octave is divided into six whole steps.
Modest Mussorgksy
(1839-1881) Russian composer he was a member of the russian five. he was probably the least educated one of the group. his music was very expressive of russian culture most of his works are performed in editions edited by later composers.
Bedrich Smetana
(1824-1884) He was the founder of Bohemian nationalistic music inherited by Dvorak. He wrote no absoulte music.