1. Why is voice classification important?
Misclassifcation can rob a voice of tonal beauty & freedom of production, can cause endless frustration & disappointment, shorten a career, & can cause vocal damage of varying degrees of performance.
2. Why is it important not to make an immediate judgment regarding a student’s classifcation?
Premature concern with classification can result in misclassification, with all its attendant dangers.
3. Why is it important to first establish good vocal habits within a limited, comfortable range?
When techniques of posture, breathing, phonation, resonation & articulation become established in this comfortable area. The true quality of the voice will emerge and the upper and lower limits of the range can be explored safely.
4. The first rule of voice classification:
Don’t be in a hurry!
5. The second rule of voice classification
Assume the voice is medium until it proves otherwise.
6. Why is it more important to develop vocal freedom than try to expand the range of a new singer?
It will lead to better vocal health with less chance of vocal harm.
7. This will help prevent a teacher from making a harmful misclassification of a voice:
Assuming a medium classification until the teacher gets to know the voice intimately.
8. Why do choir directors have a difficult time correctly placing voice within a choir?
If most voices are medium classification, the director will have to fill in categories that are too low or too high to fill the choir
9. There are fewer dangers in singing in a range that is too _____ than singing too ____.
10. What are the FOUR main considerations for classifying a voice?
1. Range
2. Tessitura
3. Timbre
4. Transition Points (Breaks)
11. How many octaves should a professional singer be able to comfortably sing in?
12. What is the difference between range and tessitura?
Range is concerned with the total compass of a voice part or of a singer. Tessitura is concerned with the pare of the range which is receiving the most use. It may refer to the voice part itself or how the singer relates to it.
13. How does a singer with a wide range determine which tessitura they should sing in?
The decision should be made mostly on which range proves more tiring to the singer.
14. What do terms such as dramatic and lyric primarily refer to?
Size of voice, kind of tone quality, or style of singing…not range
15. This is a good term for what needs to happen around the breaks in the voice to navigate them successfully.
Resonance adjustment
16. What is the goal for a singer in the transitional areas of the voice?
To learn to camoflauge the change until it is almost imperceptible.
17. The relationship between good singing and good ______ can’t be overemphasized.
18. The most important factor in voice classification is probably:
Comfortable Tessitura
19. Four major reasons for a shortened vocal career:
1. Wrong Classification
2. Wrong Technique
3. Singing too much and too often without proper rest.
4. Health problems
20. Define resonation:
The process by which the basic product of phonation is enhanced in timbre and/or intensity by the air filled cavities through which it passes on its way to the outside air.
21. The end result of resonation is:
To make a better sound.
22. What are the two basic kinds of resonance?
1. Sympathetic
2. Conductive
23. What is sympathetic resonance?
The resonator starts functioning because it receives vibrations through the air and responds to them sympathetically.
24. Name all of the vocal resonators.
Chest, Tracheal Tree, Larynx, Pharynx, Oral Cavity, Nasal Cavity, and Sinuses.
25. The “ring” can also be called:
The Singer’s Formant
26. What is the most important resonator?
The Pharynx
27. What is the most important factor of articulation?
The singer must be able to articulate without spoiling the quality which has been generated in the larynx and resonated by the pharynx.
28. Why should a full yawn position be avoided?
It depresses the larynx.
29. How does the beginning of a yawn position increase the size of the pharynx?
Lowers the larynx, gently lifts the soft palate, and relaxes the constrictor muscles.
30. Name the two major categories of faults related to resonation.
1. Faults related to Nasal Resonance.
2. Faults related to the basic harmonic spectrum of the voice (tone color)
31. How is nasal twang corrected?
1. Loosen general tension in the body.
2. Use exercise to relax the neck, throat, and jaw.
3. Try to develop a new tonal model for the student.
4. Direct the students tonal sensations to a new location.
32. What should a teacher look for first when a singer makes a too-dark sound?
Lack of activity in the articulators, such as failure to move the lips or make any significant mouth opening, which can muffle the sound even when no other faults are detected (present).
33. Define phoneme.
One of the set of speech sounds in any given language that serves to distinguish one word from another. In other words, (an elementary unit of speech that distinguishes one sound from another.).
34. What articulation-related ability is one of the most important a singer can have?
To have an ear capable of making fine discriminations in the sounds of the language in which he is singing.
35. The most important articulators:
The lips, the lower jaw, and tongue.
36. Two basic principles which contribute to effective use of the articulators:
1. All movements should be quick, precise, and positive, ending in a position which is free of tension and
2. Articulating movements must be exaggerated especially with beginners if the words are to be understood.
37. In order for the lower jaw to function well as an articulator, it must be:
Free of tension and free to move.
38. How is good jaw position achieved?
Beginning of a yawn.
39. What is the difference between external and internal mouth space?
External space is created in the front of the mouth and is controlled by the amount of mouth opening, and Internal space is created in the back of the mouth and is controlled by the action of the jaw joints.
40. In a too dark voice, too much emphasis is put on this resonator:
The Pharynx, not enough on the mouth.
41. The larynx should be ___________.
Comfortably low.
42. What are factors that cause a too-bright sound?
1. Lack of Space in the Pharynx due to the action of the constrictor muscles and/or elevation of the larynx.
2. Tension in the walls of the pharyngeal resonator making it too selective.
3. Wrong tonal models.
4. Exaggerated mouth opening, pulling the lips back in a forced smile, or protruding the lips too much.
5. Excessive tension in the muscles of the lips, tongue, jaw, or palatal arches.
43. Vocal longevity bears a direct relationship to vocal _________.
44. Why are plosive consonants helpful in reducing nasal honk?
They require closure of the nasal port.
45. Does darkness in a sound come from too much or too little tension?
It can come from either, so it is important to identify the specific cause before correcting it.
46. Conditions favorable for the generation of the singer’s formant are:
1. Lowering of the larynx
2. Widening of the laryngeal ventricle
3. Widening of the pyriform sinuses.
47. What is the objective of quick, precise, and positive consonants?
To break the tone into distinct, comprehensible units WITHOUT seriously interfering with the flow of the vocal tone.
48. The front vowels move ______ as the voice goes higher
49. How large is the speaking range?
Usually does not exceed a perfect fourth or fifth.
50. The natural tendency of the human voice is to do this as you sing higher.
Get thin, tighten, and the larynx gets high.
51. What are the speaking faults related to pitch?
1. Speaking too high.
2. Speaking too low.
3. Speaking in too restricted a range.
4. Speaking in stereotyped pitch patterns.
52. There are three factors which significantly affect the ability to sing higher or lower. What are they?
1. Energy
2. Space
3. Depth
53. How does a teacher determine a student’s habitual pitch level?
Identify one particular pitch while he/she is speaking.
What are three things a student should know about their optimal pitch level?
1. When they speak there, they’ll sound better.
2. It refers to an area of the voice, not just one pitch.
3. Vocal problems can camouflage optimal pitch.