Aulos (what is it/what is it associated with)
A wind instrument (aeorphone) with two pipes. Associated with the Cult of Dionysus
lyra (what is it/associated with)
stringed instrument (chordophone) associated with the Cult of Apollo
Most important string instrument of antiquity
Greater Perfect System
Four descending tetrachords. The first two are conjunct, then a disjunction, then two more conjunct
Lesser Perfect System
Three conjunct descending tetrachords
The final note (A) in the Greater and Lesser Perfect Systems
The middle A note in the Greater and Lesser Perfect Systems
Discovered the overtone series
Plato and Aristotle
Approached music from a philosophical standpoint
The three types of Tetrachords
diatonic, chromatic, enharmonic
The Greek Modes
Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian
Arithmetic, Geometry, Astronomy, Music. Attributed to Boethius. Began with Plato.
500 AD. Translated the ancient Greeks. Applied the quadrivium. wrote De Institutione Musica. Catagorizes music into three catagories: Musica Mundane (Music of the Spheres), Musica Humana (Music of the Body), and Musica Instrumentalis (Audible music. the lowest form of music)
Three types of Psalmody
Direct, Antiphonal, Responsorial
Edict of Milan
Established by Constantine in 313 AD. Freedom of religion
The Four Types of Chant (and which one became the most prominent)
Gallican, Mozarabic, Ambrosian, and Gregorian. Gregorian became the most prominent.
What did Pope Gregory do?
He collected and codified chants
Liber Usualis
Most commonly used chants in one book
The order of the ordinary Mass
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
The Authentic Modes
Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian
The Plagal Modes
Hypodorian, Hypophrygian, Hypolydian, Hypomixolydian
Medieval musical notation
the addition of the Ionian, Aeolian, Hypoionian, and Hypoaeolian modes to the original 8 church modes
Legendary teacher, used the Guidonian hand method to learn to sing the modes and how to modulate to different modes. (came up with the four line staff?)
The addition of text and/or melody to preexisting chant.
(Troper is a compilation of tropes)
Council of Trent
Due to the excessiveness of troping, the Council of Trent banned all but 4 sequences
Liturgical Drama
Morality play. Can be considered a type of trope. Most closely associated with Hildegard
Forms Fixes
Rondeau, Ballade, Virelai
Earliest form of polyphony. Emerged around 1000-1100 AD. Consists of the Vox Principalis and the Vox Organalis. Parallel Organum, Modified Parallel, Free organum, Sustained note style, Organum duplum, triplum