What Year was ‘the defense of Ft. McHenry’ written. By Whom?
Francis Scott Key, 1814
‘To Anacreon in Heaven’
Written in 1775, John Stafford Smith
What year was the SSB made the National anthem?
What year was the Ainsworth Psalter printed?
the Bay Psalm Book, the first book printed in the new world, was printed when?
Describe the process of ‘Lining Out’ (the Old Way)
Lining out is a call and response between leaders and congregation
song: ” Old Hundred”
Written in 1551 by Loys Bourgeouis
Why did the colonial church settle America? Two primary reasons
Money and Religious Independence
Cotton Mather
Puritan Leader, used singing as social control, didn’t believe in Old Way (Lining out)
Early American Psalmody
known as sacred harp today, first american music.
William Billings and Daniel Read composers
song: “Sherburne”
1794 by Daniel Read (day job as Comb Manufacturer)
notice loud, almost yelling aesthetic
Fuging Tunes
Early American Psalmody form
Shape Notes
teaching system developed 1801, pedagogical solfege system
William Billings
1770, published first tunebook attributed solely to New World composer; father of American Choral Music
song: “Chester”
1770, William Billings, Anthem of the American Revolution
Idea of the Maverick
innovation, independence, breaking with past influences
Lowell Mason
Reformer, founder of Public school music in U.S., wrote Joy to the World
8 aspects of musical careers
Writing/ Research
Aministration/ Management
Repair/ Maitenance
Idea of Portfolio Career
balance many different musical aspects in order to make a living
Steps to Copyrighting a Work
record it in permanent medium
(poor man’s copyright: Mail paper copy to self and don’t open)
what is Identity?
concept of self and community
parameters of identity?
Ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, age, education, region, beauty, ability
What was the start of Blackface/Ethiopian Minstrelsy?
began late 1820’s/30’s
White imitating blacks, racist and expletive
Minstrel Ensemble
begins with Virgina Minstrels, founded by Dan Emmet in 1843
song “De Boatman Dance”
Minstrelsy tune, instrumentation: bones, fiddle, tenor banjo, tambourine, voice, Dan Emmet (1843)
Minstrelsy Characters
Zip Coon (Northern dandy, finely dressed)
Wench (men crossdressed as women)
Jim Crow (Southern bumpkin, created 1830)
Later Minstrel Music
Stephen Foster brought into the parlor, didn’t want to associate with Minstrelsy
song “Old Folks At Home”
Stephen Foster, 1851, ‘Parlor minstrel tunes’
Moravian Church
Early force of Instrumental music in U.S., brought Western Euro musical styles
Dudley Buck
Concert Variations on SSB, written for Organ
Francis Hopkinson
first native born American composer
Singed Declaration of Independence
claimed: designed US Flag, written first US opera
Benjamin Franklin
Inventor, made the Glass Harmonica – 1761
Alexander Reinagle
Philadelphia Sonatas
Pianist, composer, teacher,
works not published until 1978
David Moritz Michael (1751-1827)
Moravian Composer (german influence)
wind music
Harmoniemusk (foundation of later wind band music
Anthony Philip Heinrich (1781-1861)
German Born
“Beethoven of America”
lived in a log cabin, isolationist
Charles Homann (1803-62)
First American-born Symphonist
Fund’s Academy of Music (1820)
Jenny Lind (1820-87)
US Tours 1850-53
‘Swedish Nightengale’
Sponsored by P.T. Barnum, then managed self
P.T. Barnum
sponsored Lind US tour
Mass Marketing; Lind Fever’
Louis Gottschalk (1829-69)
Jewish/Creole Composer
Similar to Liszt compositionally
worked mostly outisde of US
‘Le Banjo”
1855, Louis Gottschalk
character piece for the piano imitating the sounds of the banjo
Opera in the US
very popular, began 1825
Germania Musical Society
Revolution refugees perform European masterworks
Issue with American Composers – no supportq
Orchestras didn’t have financial stability to play new music
composition not deeply rooted in American Psyche
German catalogs were in wide demand, dominated repertoire
2nd New England School
‘Boston Six’
Members believed in friendships, not a formal school
first musicologists seeking respect
mostly building to higher music education
first successful composers
John Knowles Paine (1839-1906)
one of first music Profs at Harvard
Taught at BU
Arthur Foote (1853-1937)
Studied at NEC/ Harvard with Knowles
Opened teaching school on Beacon Hill
George W. Chadwick (1854-1931)
Director at NEC
founded Music Teachers National Association
founding member of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia
wanted to write Germanic Music, criticized for not being American enough
song “Jubilee”
from George Chadwick’s Symphonic Sketches (1900)
note rich orchestration
Amy Beach (1867-1944)
self-taught child prodigy, calvinist background
first American Female composer
symphony premiered by BSO
song: “Gaelic” Symphony
Amy Beach, 1894
similar style to New World Symphone
quotes Irish folk tunes
slower movement
Edward Macdowell (1860-1908)
Columbia University’s first prof of music
wrote piano concertos
‘Rival’ of Ices
song: “To A Wild Rose”
slow piano
from woodland sketches
song: “Presto Giocoso from piano concerto”
Macdowell, 1890
Criticisms of 2nd NE School
not ‘American’ (most studied in germany)
not mavericks
too elitist
Antonin Dvorak in America
Director of Nat’l conservatory in NYC
Drew upon ‘American Musical materials’ (Negro/ American Indian music)
Harry T. Burleigh
Dvorak’s Copyist, “Go Down Moses” recorded 1919
first black students admitted to NY conservatory
song: “New World” Symphony
Dvorak, most frequently performed American piece
inspired by Native Americans
Reactions to Dvorak
Knowles Paine – racist, folk melodies don’t advance music
Amy Beach – Negro music needs to be credited to them; their suffering
Institutions in America
institutions part of the creative process of music
Handel/Hadyn Society (1815-Present): “Historically informed performance”
Organization of Orchestras
Musicians, staff, board of directors (least to most power)
little contact between top & bottom
Chicago Symphony as a corporate model
musicians, staff, trustees, governing members, corporate sponsors, foundations
Board makes decisions, caters to listeners
Amateurism devalued
Community donations valued
publically financed youth orchestra Venezuala
Jose Antonio Abreu, founder
300,000+ musicians
teaches human values and life skills to kids from poor communities
Fisk Jubilee Singers (1871)
choir from Nashville HS
toured post-civil war to raise money
had little money because most are former slaves
huge popularity
Jeannette Thurber
Patron of the arts – established Nat’l conservatory of Musioc 1885 (modelling French music ed system [gov’t funded conservatory training])
provided aid to students regardless of race
Invited Dvorak to NY Conservatory
first African-American Genre to hit US mainstream
Mixture of African and European traditions
‘Ragged Time’ (syncopation
composed, not improvised
Afro-American slave dance parodying white owners
song “Stars and Stripes Forever”
Sousa, 1896, March form with strains and trio
Important Ragtime composers
James Scott
Scott Joplin
Joseph Lamb
song: “Maple Leaf Rag”
1897, Scott Joplin
first 1 million sold song
marketed as ‘classic ragtime’
Ragtime Ensembles
winds, brass, drums, strings
Ragtime revival
1940s became popular with Dixieland Jazz
1960s aficionados
1972 The Sting (movie)
Tin Pan Alley
Colleciton of music players along 28th between 5th and broadway
1885-90, 20’s-50’s
Publishing Revolution
Olicer Ditson & Co, large catalog, not many popular songs, bankrupt
M. Witmark & songs pop songs and survived
song: “After the Ball”
Charles K. Harris 1982
hit of the decade, sold 5 million copies
verse-chorus structure
32-bar song form
32 bar song form
lyrics in verses told story
chorus is a hook (song’s title)
influence jazz structure
Tin Pan Alley Hits
Formulaic to a point
follow conventions,
memorable chorus
Irving Berlin
Born israel, only played in F#, huge TPA success, also broadway and hollywood composer
song: “Alexander’s Ragtime Band”
1911, Berlin, his first big hit both in US and abroad
sold 2 million copies in a year
Johann Pestalozzi
Swiss, education philosphy impacted lowerll mason
Charles Ives
substance vs. manner; avoidance of ‘beauty’
meaning and intent most important
manly music
heavy quotation
Manuel Garcia
Garcia Family, introduced opera to America 1825, Barber of Seville and Don Giovonni
Concord Sonata
Self published/distributed
written about concord, Mass; movements centered around American Transcendentalist Authors
Emerson, Hawthorne, Alcotts, Thoreau
song: “Daniel”
ring shout
Ring shout
cyclical slave chant, call and response to spite the plantation owner, no audience, in ring formation
John Philip Sousa (1854-1832)
Born on Capitol Hill, Director of U.S. Marine Band at 26
135 independent works + others, played arrangements differently
Alton Adams
first African-American bandmaster of the U.S. Navy, from St. Thomas, inspired by Sousa, self-taught
song: “The Governor’s own”
Alton Adams 1921, wrote piece to mimic the step of the USVI’s first naval administrator
Jazz Music
It’s Jazz. important for civil rights music, stems from blend of african and euro traditions
blue notes
New Orleans Jazz
earliest surviving style of jazz
front line – cornet, clarinet, tombrone
Rhythm section – tuba,. bajo, piano, drums
song: Dippermouth Blues
1923, collective improvisation
Hot Jazz 1920s
Illicit, part of post WWI disillusionment (isolation, hedonism)
flappers, early sexual revolution
jazz was the soundtrack
Louis Armstrong (1901-1971)
Born and raised New Orleans
definite jazz
‘inventor’ of scat singing
song: “West End Blues”
1928, pianist Earl Hines
fanfare, melody, elaboration, departure
call and response w/ scat
held note/ end with flourish
Duke Ellington (1899-1974)
pianist, leader, composer
c. 2000 compositions
wrote for bandmembers more than instruments
song: “Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue”
song on two sides of a record, two parts of the same, longer song
Jazz & Race
Minstrel aspects still required of black performers in U.S. Mainstream (Armstong in jungle costume)
Billie Holiday
Born Elenora Fagan 1915,
considered by many to be the foremost jazz singer ever
song: “Swing, Brother Swing”
1937 Count Basie Orchestra,
song: “Strange fruit”
cafe society, interracial NYC club, 1939
anti-Lynching song written by Abel Meeropol (Jewish school teacher) under name Lewis Allen Inspired by 1930 photograph of killing of Thomas Shipp and Abram Smith