the relative position, high or low of a musical sound
a series of notes arranged in order to form a distinctive musical unit; most often placed in the treble
a short, distinctive melodc figure that stands by itself
two or more notes played at the same time
an even pulse in music that divides the passing of time into equal segments
a group of beats, or musical pulses; usually, the number of beats is fixed and constant so that the measure serves as a continual unit of measurement in music
emphasis or stress placed on a tone or chord
the gathering of beats into regular groups
the organization of time in music
the speed at which beats occur in music
a gradual slowing down of the tempo
a rhythmic device in which the natural accent falling on the strong beat is placed on a different, normally weaker beat
dynamic level
the various levels of volume, loud and soft at which sounds are produced in a musical composition.
a gradual increase in the volume of sound
a gradual decrease in volume
the process by which an instrumentalist plucks strings rather than bowing
pitches sounding agreeable and stable
discordant pitches
vocal parts
individual vocal lines in a composition
instrument families
a slight and continual wobbling of the pitch producesd on a string instrument or by human voice
a rapid alternation of two neighboring pitches
any device that muffles the sound of a musical instrument; on the trumpet, for example, it is a cup that is placed inside the bell of the instrument
a musical texture involving only a single line of music with no accompaniment
a musical texture involving multiple lines sounding simultaneously–often are independent and create counterpoint
multiple lines moving at the same rhythm
the harmonious opposition of two or more melodic lines
a contrapuntal form in which the individual voices enter in turn and duplicate what the previous voices sang
strophic form
musical form often used in setting a strophic, or stanzaic, text, such as a hymn or carol
theme and variation form
a musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music.
binary form
ternary form
rondo form
an ancient musical form in which a refrain alternates with contrasting material
the general surface sound produced by the interaction of the elements of music: melody, rhythm, harmony, color, texture and form
the system of subsidization employed by artists of the renaissance and earlier–a wealthy individual would bestow financial support upon an artist
proper of the Mass
the sections of mass that vary with each feast day
ordinary of the Mass
the five sung portions of the Mass for which the texts are unvariable
office/ canonical Hourse
divisions of time between daily prayers
Gregorian chant/ plainsong
a large body of unaccompanied monophonic vocal music, set to Latin texts, composed for the Western Church over the course of fifteen centuries, from the time of the earliest fathers to the Council of Trent
syllabic singing
each syllable gets a note
melismatic singing
when one vowel spreads luxuriously over many notes
liturgical drama
a segment of the mass that contains theatrical elements regarding biblical topics (precursor to opera)
the name given to the early polyphony of the Western Church from the 9th to the 13th centuries
Notre Dame
the cathedral in Paris where music flourished and Leoninus and Perotinus developed polyphony.
Leoninus (fl. 1169-1201)
wrote Magnus liber organi– developed polyphonic music
Perotinus (fl. 1198-1236)
Leoninus’ partner in crime. composed in the same cathedral during the same time period, in similar styles
newly composed polyphonic section sung in discant style
a composition for a choir or larger chorus setting a religious, devotional or solemn text; often sung a cappella
ars nova/ trecento
period from Roman de Fauvel until death of Machaut
Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300-1377)
wrote mass of our lady–an almost entirely polyphonic mass
Notre Dame Mass
Machaut’s famous mass that is almost entirely polyphonic
when a single note sounds while the other rests
formes fixes
common poetic forms of the 14th and 15th centuries (ballad, rondeau, virelai)
Philipp de Vitry (1291-1361)
French composer and music theorist–wrote ars nova
Roman de Fauvel
ars nova form–allegorical criticism of church and state
isorhythmic motet
a piece of music with repeated rhythms (talea) but varying colors
an order of durations or rhythms
a type of secular poet-musician that flourished in northern France during the thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries
troubador/ trobairitz
southern france version of trouvere
Minne/ Meistersingers
German version of Troubadour
Guillaume Dufay (c. 1397-1474)
Franco-Flemish composer of the early renaissance–most famous of mid-1400s (composed Nuper Rosarum flores)
worship area
Nuper Rosarum flores
piece by Guillaume Dufay. combined older isorhythmic styles with the new contrapuntal styling that was being developed–was written for the opening of a new Florence cathedral
Hundred Years’ War
a war that lasted a hundred years.
Dunstable (1390-1453)
english composer of polyphonic music of late medieval and early renaissance era
contenance anglois
English manner-refers to the english style of polyphony employed by John Dunstable and others
cantus firmus Mass
a mass in which each movement (kyrie, gloria, credo, sanctus, Agnus Dei) shared a common theme. first multi-movement piece to be unified by a theme
Tinctoris (1435-1511)
music theorist with 8 rules of composition
Art of Counterpoint
book by C.H. Kitson detailing contrapuntal method
Josquin de Prez
Franco-Flemish composer of the renaissance. first master of high renaissance style of polyphony
a capella
music “of the chapel” sung w/o accompaniment
a form of musical repitition in which a musical gesture is repeated later in a different form.