“Pathetique” Sonata
A Beethoven sonata, very sad–hence the name.
“Tempest” Sonata
Another Beethoven sonata. Constant changes in mood and tone, from “calm” to “stormy”
“Moonlight” Sonata
“almost a fantasy” another three part Beethoven sonata
Heiligenstadt Testament
Letter by Beethoven written to brothers about his increasing deafness
Heroic period
The middle segment of beethoven’s career in which he decided to enter a new direction.
“Eroica” Symphony
Marks the start of the heroic period. Characterized by intense changes in emotion on the dime.
means joke in italian, implies that the piece should be performed in a playful manner–usually the last movement of a sonata.
Fifth Symphony
short short short long opening. one of the most famous pieces in classical music
“Pastorale” Symphony
five movement symphony meant to evoke rural emotion
chromatic harmony
colorful harmony–not “diatonic”–come on, Jeff you oughta know this one
changes of tempo at the discretion of conductor or soloist
someone who has achieved eminence in a skill. One of the best in their craft.
Paganini (1782-1840)
well known violinist, violist, guitarist and composer–prime example of a virtuoso
Schubert (1797-1828)
Austrian composer who wrote unfinished symphony. Like Schumann but with more accidentals.
events to celebrate Schubert’s music–informal during his lifetime, at a house and chill. Formal during modern times.
song cycle
a group of songs designed to be played in sequence as part of a single performance
Die Winterreise
a song cycle of poems written by wilhelm muller and composed by franz schubert
lied/ lieder
literally song/ songs. art music or art songs from the romantic period.
Goethe (1749-1832)
german writer and polymath of romantic period. writer, poet, philosopher, composer, theologist, dramatist, etc.
character in german poems and ballads.
pieces without repetition–develop themes w/o repeating them.
“Unfinished” Symphony
One of Schubert’s most well-known symphonies w/ an unfinished scherzo
Robert Schumann 1810-1856
Great Romantic composer–started New Journal of Music
Poet’s Love (Dichterliebe)
piece by Schumann
Clara Wieck Schumann 1819-1896
Schumann’s wife, influential pianist who helped shape concert piano formats
New Journal of Music
Schumann’s music journal. published articles by scholars and musicians alike, notably Wagner’s antisemitic bullshit articles
Band of David
a Schumann piece
character piece
a brief piece–generally composed for piano–with a single idea in mind.
Scenes from Childhood
a song cycle of character pieces
program music
art-music meant to evoke extra-musical ideas. pieces represent scenes, moods, images, etc. i.e. Peter and the Wolf
absolute music
music that is not explicitly about anything–abstract.
dramatic overture
an overture for an opera or dramatic piece
concert overture
an overture intended not for a dramatic presentation but for non-theatrical performance
Berlioz (1803-1869)
romantic composer who wrote Treatise on Instrumentation
Harriet Smithson
Berlioz’s muse, inspiration for symphonie fantastique
Symphonie fantastique
Berlioz’s most notable piece. “an episode in the life of an artist” is the original title. one of the most important and representative pieces of romantic period
idee fixe
the “leading motif” or leading idea of a piece. also known as a leitmotif
Dies irae
a latin hymn that translates as “day of wrath”
col legno
instruction for stringed instrumentalist to strike a string w/ the wood of the bow
Felix Mendelssohn 1809-1847
a german jewish composer of the romantic period. not very experimental, leaned more conservatively toward classical styles like bach.
incidental music
music in a television, radio, movie, play, etc. that is not explicitly musical.
Overture to Midsummer Night’s Dream
mendelssohn’s overture to a straight play (not an opera) for which he
Fanny Mendelssohn (1805-1847)
felix’s sister–good composer and pianist.
Chopin 1810-1849
polish composer and virtuoso pianist. One of the great romantics. wrote solo for piano and
musical composition inspired by or evoking of the night
polish folk dance in triple meter (i.e. 3/4, 6/8, 9/8) w/ emphasis on second or third beat. very lively
George Sand/ Aurore Dudevant 1803-1876
a muse of chopin’s. wrote plays about him. extreme feminist and novelist.
Liszt 1811-1886
composer, virtuoso pianist, great performer, teacher. member of new german school of music. wrote “symphonic poems”
a difficult musical piece, usually written for students to help them improve
Marie d’ Agoult (1805-1876)
liszt’s callin’ ho. (muse). French author.
bel canto
literal translation: beautiful singing. Italian operas with multiple meanings and potential interpretation
Rossini 1792 1868
opera composer who wrote religious and chamber music. wrote barber of seville
Italiana in Algeri
“the italian girl in algiers” operatic giocoso by rossini
Bellini (1801-1835)
sicilian composer of bel canto opera
bel canto by bellini. one of his most notable pieces
Donizetti 1797=1848
another bel canto composer
Verdi 1813-1901
italian composer of opera–mainly melodrama
the joining of the city-states
two part form favored for operas. introduces an intensification of plot or music after cantabile
opera in four acts by Verdi. considered his greatest
post-romantic opera. occured in last quarter of 19th century
Leoncavallo 1857-1919
opera composer from Italy. did I pagiacci
I pagiacci
Leoncavallo’s most famous works. one of the most performed operas in history
Puccini 1858-1924
great Italian opera composer. did la boheme
La boheme
one of the most frequently performed operas by Leoncavallo
Bizet 1838-1875
french composer and pianist of romantic era. did carmen
bizet’s most popular opera, became loved posthumously and became one of the most popular operas of all time.
von Weber (1786-1826)
german composer and pianist of romantic era
The Magic Bullet
opera by von weber about German legend. very nationalist.
Wagner 1813-188
great german composer/ antisemitic mothafucka. Die Walkyrie
more elaborate intricate recitative