melodic idea used as a basic building block in the construction of composition
short melodic or rhythmic idea. the smallest fragment of a theme.
standard category and overall character of a work
instrumental genre in several movements for soloist or small ensemble
string quartet
chamber music ensemble consisting of two violins, viola, and cello. also a multi-movement composition for this ensemble
classical instrumental genre that combines elements of chamber music and symphony, often performed in the evening or at social functions. related to divertimento and cassation
large work for orchestra generally in three or four movements
cyclical form
structure in which musical material such as a theme presented in one movement later returns in another movement
absolute music
music that has no literary, dramatic, or pictorial program. also “pure music”
music drama sung throughout. combines vocal and instrumental music with poetry and drama, acting and pantomime
an introductory movement, as in an opera or oratorio, often presenting melodies from arias to come. also an orchestral work for concert performance
solo vocal declamation that follows the inflections of the text often resulting in a disjunct vocal style; found in opera, cantata and oratorio
text, or, script, of an opera, prepared by a librettist
fairly large group of singers who perform together, usually with several on each part. also a choral movement of a large scale work. 
lyric song for solo voice with orchestral accompaniment, generally expressing intense emotion; found in opera cantata and oratorio
thematic development

musical expansion of a theme by varying its melodic outline, harmony, or rhythm

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(apparent in Beethoven’s 5th Symphony)

sonata-allegro form
opening movement of the multi-movement cycle: exposition, development, recapitulation
multi-movement cycle
a three or four movement structure used in Classical era instrumental music–especially the symphony, sonata, concerto, and in chamber music, each movement is in a prescribed tempo and form; sometimes called sonata cycle
Classical period (dates)
Which composers are included in the Viennese School of composing?
Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert
What did the composers of the Viennese School set out to do?
-Explore fully the possibilities offered by the major-minor system; and second, to perfect a large-scale form of instrumental music that exploited those possibilities to the fullest degree
What is the patronage system?
sponsorship of an artist or a musician, historically by a member of the wealthy or ruling classes
The Mozart Effect
the term for the theory that listening to mozart can make a person smarter
Mannheim school of composing
contributed steamroller effect and rocket theme