Ring Shout (songster, sticker, baser, shouter)
Songster (lead singer), Sticker (beats the ground with a stick), basers (respond to songster’s call, clap), shouter (women who dance in a circle)
Composed poetry with wandering refrains (short choruses atached at random to standard, composed hymn stanzas). Camp meeting hymns had textual and melodic repetition, duple meter, call and response (often overlapping), no fixed order or wording of verses, pentatonic melody (five pitches) which makes the interval of the third important, “Blue notes” (flexible approach to pitch), and syncopation
Camp Meetings
Part of evangelical movement in America known as the Second Great Awakening (ca. 1790 – mid 1800s). Open-air revivals, spanned several day.
Blue Notes
Flexible approach to pitch (pitch area vs. absolute pitches)
Concert Spirituals
The first time spirituals were performed on stage was with the fisk Jubilee singers were in concert spirituals which used the testimony as a cultural artifact to use for fundraising and to perform on stage (150,000) before disband in 1878 and even toured england. Hundreds of rival groups, parodies in minstrel and variety performers.
Folk Spirituals
Signifyin’ Monkey, uses metaphor, innuendo, allusion, homonymn, intertextuality. It challenges the literal critique of meaning.
Blackface Minstrelsy
Jokes (conundrums, riddles, puns), Songs (sentimental, comic, and novelty), Dances (the essence, buck and wing, jig), imitations (of animal noises, machines), parodies, sketches and specialty acts (acrobatics, magic, animal tricks).

Featured banjoes, “bones”, tambourines and other instruments, mocked the dialect of blacks in the south, presented black people as backwards, codified derogatory sterotypes, later nostolgia for antebellum south “Old Folks at Home” Paul Robeson

Jump Jim Crow
Performed by Thomas Dartmouth Rice (T.D. or Daddy Rice) who was a white actore and playwriter (1808-1860) who codified blackface minstrelsy. signifyin’ and cake walk
Convict Labor
Content of the Blues
Lyrics not explicit, chronological, developed stories, use of innuendo, allusion, repetition, homonym, and hints to create a metaphor rather than a plot, signifyin’, love, death, sex, the devil, hardship, loss, community events, alcohol, trouble with the law, conveyed a sense of immediacy
Features of the Blues
12 Bar Blues (AAB), “paralinguistic utterances”: moans, groans, sighs, hollers, blue notes, slides, swoops, call and response between voice and guitar is common
Badman / Stagolee
“The ‘badman’ was the heroic figure that especially captured the folk imagination of African Americans during the 1890s, because of his uncanny ability to trick the sheriff and the judge through acts of defiance. This ability to defy ‘the law’ resulted from the badman character evolving as a synthesis of traits from the trickster and conjurer traditions.”
Devil / Legba
Antebellum and post bellum african americans saw in the tradition of this figure of wit and guile, capable of manipulatively procuring sustenance in the face of abject oppression, an emulative model of behavior that they transmitted in their trickster tales. When African American singers and stroytellers merged the traits of the trickster with those of the conjurer — a hero with supernatural powers believed to be purchased from the devil — the resulting ‘badman’ character was, in effect, a ‘supernatural trickster’. The tradition of the black conjurer, particularly the notion that that his power was derived from the devil, played a principal part in the development of the badman character as having gleaned his powers from the devil or the devil’s evil influence on the world
Race Records
Okeh Records, Paramount, Victor, Black Swan, Columbia
“The One”
The idea that the future is giving guidance to the present. Tied with funk music and has also been in hip-hop. Idea of alien vs. human and supernatural powers being in the natural world, also tied to ancestry (egypt)
New Orleans Jazz
Blue Notes, Syncopation, Breaks/Stops, Quoting (homage, signifyin’), Improvisation,One player on each instrument, quick solos, egalitarian
After the Egyptian and Indian, the Greek and Roman, the Teuton and Mongolian, the Negro is a sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and gifted with second-sight in this American world, –a world which yields him no true self-consciousness, but only lets him see himself through the revelation of the other world. It is pa peculiar sensation, this double-consciousness, this sense of always looking at one’s self through the yes of others, of measuring one’s soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity. One ever feels his twoness, –an American, a Negro; two souls, two thoughts, two unreconciled strivings, two warring ideals in one dark body, whose dogged strength alone keeps it from being torn asunder.
Concert Spirituals
Sonata Form
12-bar blues
AAB. Two repeat and one different. 12-bar like.. one, two, three, four
Head / Solo
Head arrangements (follows general pattern of head-solo-head-solo ect.), front-line and back-line players, instruments in mid-range, dance-oriented, big bad arrangements

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New role for rhythm section (not just support, piano and guitar solos), usually 14 members– 4 rhythm instruments, 5 brass instruments, 5 reeds, by the end of the 1930s included electric guitar and vibraphone

Back-line and Front-line players
Jungle Music
Instrumentation: Saxophone, trumpet, bass, piano, drums (occasional clarinet), Form: Usually the first chorus (or “head”) presents the tune concisely, very fast tempo and virtuosic playing

Rhythm off balance (stress between beats), Phrases of various lengths (asymmetrical as opposed to balance), Underneath the solo: piano comps, walking bass, drummer (rides cymbals), unusual harmonies, angular melodies

Rhythm and Blues
In 1949 Billboard changed it’s name for “Race Music” to “Rhythm and Blues”, 12-bar “jump blues” (blues with hard-swinging rhythms), “lower class” alternative to jazz (swing), electric instruments, shouting, stride piano blues
Rock n Roll
Term invented by Alan Freed (DJ from Cleveland Ohio), Euphemism for R&M, to integrate into white mainstream, white crooner/country (“hillbilly”) influenced covers of R&B songs, “cleaned up”
Stride Piano
Jump Blues