boogie woogie
blues piano tradition
repeated pattern with left hand, improvised pattern with right
style of singing made possible with microphone, intimate approach
style rooted in southern string band
pioneer was Bill Monroe
banjo, fiddle, guitar, etc.
blues crooning
cool style of rhythm and blues blend of blues and pop
Chicago electric blues
postwar urban blues
tradition of Charley Patton and Robert Johnson
amplified instruments
rougher style
postwar country “hard country”
texas and oklahoma, conveyed the sound and ethos or roadside bar
jump blues
first commercially successful category of R&B
afer WWII
smaller than big bands
boogie-woogie based
Glenn Miller
Trombonist and bandleader
peppy, clean-sounding style
appealed to small town people
John Hammond
Influential jazz enthusiast
Helped many artists like Bessie Smith, Billie Holiday and Aretha Franklin secure recording contracts
Benny Goodman
“king of swing”
popularity of band helped establish the swing era
first white band leader to hire black musicians
Fletcher Henderson
musician, bandleader and arranger
credited with inspiring the rise of swing
William “Count” Basie
Black pianist and bandleader
band known for improv. style and strong sense of swing
Edward Kennedy “Duke” Ellington
Pianist, composer, arranger and bandleader
most imp. of 20th century
unusual musical forms, instrument combos and distinctive tone colors
Roy Claxton Acuff
Most pop. hillbilly singer of swing
joined Grand Ole Opry
performed in style self-consciously rooted in southern folk music
Bob Wills
Fiddler from east texas “texas playboys” pioneered western swing
widely regarded as pioneers of modern country and western music
Gene Autry
First successful singing cowboy
film star
“western” component
deep baritone voice and crooner smoothness
Xavier Cugat
Spanish violinist, bandleader and filmstar “Rhumba King”
popularized latin music
recorded “brazil”
Frank Sinatra
(Francis Albert)
Italian family
crooning style and bel canto technique
Nat “King” Cole
Most successful black recording artist postwar
piano improviser
elaborate orchestral arrangements
Damaso Perez Prado
Cuban pianist, organist and bandleader
popularized mambo through Latin America/US
“Mambo No. 5
Louis Jordan
Saxophone player recording for Decca Records
most successful and influential jump band
successful audience pre/post war
Muddy Waters
“Father of Chicago Blues”
sang in country style
greatest influence on the British blues boom
Ruth Brown
“Miss Rhythm”
Pro career at age 16
Atlantic Records
Most pop. black female vocalist in America
Big Mama Thornton
Pro career as singer, drummer, harmonica and comic
tough woman
“Hound dog”
Johnnie Ray
Partially deaf
“Prince of Wails”
paved the way for rock n roll stars of later 50s
Patti Page
sold more records than any other female singer of early 1950s
“all my love” “The doggie in the window” “Tennessee Waltz”
Eddy Arnold
Most pop. country crooner
dominated country charts and top 40 in pop chart
Ernest Tubb
first honky-tonk performers
harder-edged country sound
amp instruments
Bill Monroe
started Blue Grass Boys
joined cast of Grand Ole Opry
Hank Thompson
pop variation of honky-tonk
mixed it with western swing
Kitty Wells
married Johnny Wright
appeared with him on radio
“sweet kitty wells”
Hank Williams
most significant single figure to emerge postwar in country music
top ten records on country charts
“Lovesick blues” “Cold, cold heart” “Jambalaya” “Your cheating heart”
a cappella
vocal sining without instrumental accompaniment
cover version
a version of a prev. recorded performance
aimed to cash in on its success
electric guitar
electrically amplified guitar
prolongation of sound
acoustical space created by reflective surfaces
illegal practice of paying bribes to radio DJs to get certain artists played more
behind the scence role at record company, responsible for booking time in studio, hiring back up singers, engineering process, etc.
Black musical genre emerging after WWII
replacing “race records”
rock n roll
commercial and marketing term in mid 1950s
new target audience
encompassed variety of styles (r&b, country and pop)
vigorous form of country and western
rhythms of black R&B and electric blues
Carl Perkins and young Elvis Presley
scat singing
technique involving the use of nonsense syllables as a vehicle for wordless vocal improv
solid-body electric guitar
electrically amped guitar first used in R&B, blues and country bands
song form that employs the same music for each poetic unit in the lyrics
Alan Freed
DJ and concert promoter
“pied piper” of rock n roll
Big Joe Turner
“blues shouter”
signed with Atlantic
“Shake, Rattle and Roll”
The Chords
R&B black male vocal group
orig. version of “sh-boom”
The Crew Cuts
white male vocal group whose cover of “sh-boom” was one of two biggest pop hits
Bill Haley
DJ and western swing bandleader
Bill Haley and the Comets
successful cover versions of R&B hits
Herman “Little Junior” Parker
Singer, songwriter and harmonica player
Little Junior’s Blue Flames
“Mystery train”
Charles Edward Anderson “Chuck” Berry
lyricist and songwriter, rock n roll vocal stylist
pioneering electric guitarist
1st black musicians to consciously forge his own R styles
“duck walk”
Buddy Holly
Charles Hardin Holley
early rock n roll guitarist, singer and songwriter
killed in plane crash
Richard Wayne Penniman “Little Richard”
Flamboyant early rock n roll singer and pianist
uninhibited shouting style
“Long Tall Sally”
Antoine “Fats” Domino
established as an R singer and pianist
rock n roll star
R tinged hits
“Aint it a shame” “Blueberry hill”
Elvis Presley
“The king of Rock n Roll”
the country side of the music world star
Kingston Trio
most pop folk groups of rock n roll era
kept interest in folk music
“Tom Dooley”
Wanda Jackson
“queen of rockabilly”
multitalented singer, instrumentalist and songwriter
Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller
songwriting and producing team of the early rock n roll years
wrote “hound dog”
wrote hits for elvis presley and the coasters
Brill building
rock n rolls vertical tin pan alley
It was home to many pop-rock songwriting teams during the early 1960
concept album
album conceived as an integrated whole
arranged in deliberate sequence
Hitsville USA Motown
Nickname of Mowtown Records
founded by Berry Gordy
“The twist”
teen-oriented rock n roll song using twelve-bar blues structure
hip-swiveling dance step
“wall of sound”
describe studio production techniques of Phil Spector
multiple instruments
amount of echo
carefully controlling balance of record
Chubby Checker
singer who became famous for cover of “the twist”
Dick Clark
host of pop. teen-oriented tv show American Bandstand
Phil Spector
“first tycoon of teen”
“wall of sound”
studio productions and techniques
wrecking crew
studio musicians who worked regularly with Phil Spector at Gold Star Studios
Berry Gordy Jr.
founder of motown records
The Supremes
black female vocal group
motown records
“you cant hurry love”
The Temptations
black male vocal group feat. w/ motown records
“my girl”
Funk Brothers
studio musicians of motown’s house band
james jamerson
benny benjamin
earl van dyke
Beach Boys
founded in Cali
“california sound”
“Surfin USA”
“Good vibrations”
Brian Wilson
leader and guiding spirit of the beach boys
wrote “Good vibrations”
The Beatles
rock group from Liverpool, England
“British invasion”
John Lennon
George Harrison
Paul McCartney
Ringo Starr
The Rolling Stones
British rock group who cultivated an image as “bad boys”
contrast the Beatles
sophisticated approach to country music
fusion of “country” and “cosmopolitan”
Nashville sound
country music style involving arrangements and vocal presentation
Patsy Cline (most imp.)
psychedelic rock
music played by San Fran bands
“hard rock”
variety of styles
soul music
Black musical style rooted in R&B and gospel
urban folk
style of folk that grew in pop. NYC scene
Bob Dylan
Bob Dylan
Robert Zimmerman
urban folk singer and songwriter
“Blowin’ in the wind”
“Mr. Tambourine Man”
“Like a Rolling Stone”
Jimi Hendrix
original, inventive and influential guitarist of rock era
most pop. black rock musician of 1960s
Patsy Cline
country vocalist
crossover hits
“Crazy” “I fall to pieces”
Ray Charles
“Genius of Soul”
songwriter, arranger, keyboard player and vocalist
R&B, jazz and mainstream pop
Grateful Dead
San Fran rock scene
more than 3 decades
James Brown
“Godfather of Soul”
acrobatic physicality and remarkable charisma
most influential musician of black music
Aretha Franklin
“The Queen of Soul”
gospel music at early age
“Respect” “Think”
Janis Joplin
Successful white blues singer of 1960s
band called Big Brother and the Holding Company
Grace Slick
vocalist for Jefferson Airplane
most imp. female musician on the San Fran scene
Jerry Gracia
guitarist, banjoist and singer
urban fold groups
formed the Grateful Dead