Within the first few sessions, the Music Therapist should…..
develop a rapport with the client, gather information specific to the client, observe the client in various settings, narrow the defined problem and associated goal, and outline the responsibilities of the client and therapist
The therapist should determine…..
If or how other professionals have been involved and what other programs have been tried.
____ Can offer important information on the most effective therapeutic plan
The objective and outcomes of other programs as well as the medial and therapeutic history available from other sources.
Developing a rapport can be accomplished through……
An introduction to the client followed by discussion of the client’s preferences for different things, the potential results of music therapy, and the reasons for the client’s involvement in therapy.
The therapist should remain non judgemental while….
observing and listening while using body language conveying interest and concern.
The initial assessment should consider….
the present and past state of the client and the particular problem requiring therapy, as well as the present and past responsiveness to music and associated music behavior.
Family should be involved when?
Whenever possible as the client will respond more naturally to a family member or friend than to the therapist in a social context
Ideal information gathering…
Ideally, sessions for music thearpy should be held in the location where the client exhibits the presenting problem in its most extreme fashion
Sessions should be held in what kind of setting?

Places that allow for access to music materials in an acoustically sound area. Sometimes therapy can be more effective when this area can be seperated from the customary arenas. 


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** Therapist should consider these issues when dettermining the location, as well as the possible limitations of the effectiveness of the therapy when unknown variables are factored into the session.

Many actions involved in music therapy require the client to provide or complete a…
passive or active response, social interaction, physical manipulation, cognitive skills, and emotional reaction
Activities associated with music therapy can provide the therapist an opportunity to witness the current state of the client through such tasks as….
playing an instrument, leading a song, completing a listening task, and moving to music.
Specific client responses can be observed through the following…


level of participation,

ability or willingness to follow instructions, attentiveness to task,

attentiveness to the therapist,

social interaction,

gross and fine motor coordination,

speech, language skills,

behavior that is appropriate and inappropriate,

emotional or affective behavior,

music behavior

The therapy session provides the client a chance to interact with the environment as deteremind by the music therapist for such activities as…

problem solving

social interactions

pattern establishments

Movements performed as dance or exercises that are associate with music are classified as…

creative movement


synchronized movement

Creative Movement gives the clients…
A freer avenue for expression and allows them to improvise and enjoy the physical act of motion itself
Synchronized movment follows…
an established routine and is choreographed to the rhythm and beat of the selected music.
Synchronized music helps clients…
work as a group and see the importance of teamwork
Creative movement allows clients to…
freely express themselves to song.
Both types of music allow clients to…

Develop their listening skills and focus on what they are hearing.


**Focused listening is also considered perceptive or active listening

The Contract
Will delineate the expecatitions that the therapist and client have for each other with specific conditions listed that are in line with the conditions set forth by the associated agency or facility, the therpaist, and the client.
Individual Education Plan (IEP)

A documented or written plan of education or instruction designed for each individual child who has special needs regarding the educational experience.


Normally IEP’s include statements that describe the child’s current functioning, short and long term objectives and goals for treatment and education required services for administering that education and other related information.

Education for the Handicapped Act

(Public Law 94-142)

Requires that all handicapped children must have an IEP that details the specific special education and related services used in conjunction and as appropriate.
Describes the concept of including children with special needs in classrooms with other regularly functioning children.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder and Multiply Handicapped (PDD)

refers to a group of conditions affecting the functionality of clients, such as autism, rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder, asperger’s disorder, and other illnesses or conditions.


Multiply handicapped

those clients who have more than on identified or diagnosed impairment. 


such multiple diagnoses may include a physical or sensory handicap that is supplemented by another physical or sensory handicap that furthe inhibits the normal adjustment or development of the client


Rett Syndrome
Disorder where children lose manual dexterity, social interactive ability, coordinated movement and language ability following the apperance of normal early development and is associated with deceleration of head growth and severe psychomotor retardation
Stroke or Apoplexy
A blockage of the blood supply to the brain with temporary or severe results including paralysis, incontinence or loss of bowel or bladder control, or aphasia or speech difficulty
Williams Syndrome

A neurobehavioral congenital disorder that is evidenced by delayed motor development, notable difficulty in visual and spatial functioning, and mild to moderate mental retardation. 


Clients are able to demonstrate hyperacusis, social and verbal fluency and a marked responsiveness to music

Developmental Disability

A disorder that originates prior to 18 years and constitues an indefinitely continuing handicap.

The associated diabilities include autism, mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and severe learning difficulties or disabilities when related to mental retardation

Down’s Syndrome
Cause by an extra chromosome or a congenital abnormality of the trisomy 21 gene that results in mental retardation and other physical abnormalities
Huntington’s Disease
An inherited disorder that affects the central nervouse system and causes involuntary movement and subsequent contortions. Huntington’s disease can also negatively affect behavioral symptoms and cognitive decline
Parkinson’s Disease
Describes a chronic disorder of the nervous system that is evidenced by rigidity, tremor, and slow movements
Attention Deficit Disorder

A disorder that is exhibited through hyperactivity, belligerent or diruptive inattention, or impulsiveness resulting in clinically significant and pervasive impairment. 


While defining symptoms of ADD usually present themselves during childhood before 7 years of age, this disorder may be diagnosed by doctors during adulthood

Behavior Disorder
A difficulty or problem with a client’s attitude or behavior that is extreme enough to negatively impact the learning process
A client whose disorder usually begins in infancy and entails preoccupation with inanimate objects, self absorption, or other behaviors that could be deemed dysfunctional, destructive or ritualistic.
Behavioral Disorders include:
Disruptive behavior or ADD, oppositional defiant disorders, hyperactivity, conduct disorders, or other comparable behavior problems that suffer from an inablity to appropriately act or respond in social interactions whereby this inappropriate action or response hinders the child’s ability to learn.
Learning Disorder

A client with a particular deficit existing in an area that relates to the processing of information or learning that can reult in a decrease of achievement when compared to the normal learning abilities of other people. 


*Learning disorders are usually correlated with perceptual motor deficiencies or brain damage

Neuromsucular Disorder
A condition that can negatively affect the entire nervous sustem and associated muscles of the body

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder


A kind of anxiety disorder where the client can relive or continue to experience a particular traumatic event with consistent association and avoidance of specific stimuli that the client has connected with the event.
Fine Motor Dexterity
Coordination or the use of small muscles in the hands, arms, or feet involved in manipulating, grapsing, or reaching for particular objects
Motor Skills Disorder

A defect in the client’s coordination. 

Often diagnosed during childhood, motor skills disorder can result in tremendous loss of functions but is not caused by a medical condition and therefore does not meet the criteria for a PDD

Mental Retardation
An intellectual condition usually with an IQ of 70 or below, of clients who have impaired adaptive functionality. This condition presents itself during the developmental period
Cerebral Palsy
A set or series of disorders exhibited by difficulty in movement, voluntary muscle control, or posture reulting from severe brain injuring during early childhood
Communication Disorder
The particular social condition of the client as characterized by the client’s inability to express opinions or ideas or mimc responses through regular speech, written text, or physical gestures.
How many half tones does the Bb trumpet play above the piano?


i.e Piano plays F trumpet plays G

Conduct Disorder
A repeating pattern of social responses or behaviors where typical social etiquette is not observed. Such responses include aggression, destruction, serious violations, and deceitfulness.
Disruptive behavior disorder
A aprticular kind of conduct disorder that is characterized by the oppositional and defiant behaviors that do not meet the generally accepted criteria for other named conduct disorder
Oppositional defiant disorder
A condition defined by continuing hostility and negative behaviors that cause functional difficulties in clients
Physical challenges or Physical Impairment
A broad array of particular circumstances or conditions that may affect the ability of the body to perform normal functions or act and process information as a normal functional capacity
Physical Therapy or Physiotherapy
Treatment for rehabilitation of specific physical impairments or challenges that incorporates such activities or service as massage therapy, hydrotherapy, heat exposure, and definite exercise regimens
Sensory Impairment
A disorder that affects sensual contact with the environment. (impedes normal workings of the muscular receptions associated with seeing, tasting, touching, and moving.)
Tramatic Brain Injury
A head injury that occurs during an accident or other sudden event with significant affects on the client’s cognitive and behavioral functions
A group of symptoms that are defined by the deterioration of cognitive functios to the point that the client loses contact with the environment and experiences a disintegration of personality. With possible apprearances of emotional apathy, madness, or insanity, most clients exhibit dementia through an inability to maintain or process memory, abstract thinking, problem-solving, or judment and may exprience hallucinations or delusions.
Alzheimer’s Disease
A dementia of the Alzheimer’s type and is characterized by a progressive and degenerative condition of the mind and central nervous system. Most clients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease show symptoms with a dangerous and subtle development accompanied by a subsequent functional decline and multiple cognitive deficits.
Auditory Discrimination
the ability of a client to distinguish sepcific characteristics of certain sounds and identify or recognize the differences
Auditory Memory
the ability of a client to remember what he/she heard, reatin that information, and recall it on command or at will
Auditory Motor-match
the process involved in a client’s awareness of sound or vibration and the resulting movement, motion, or response. Some responses are learned or acquired through practice or mimicking of movements, while other responses are natural and instinctive
Hearing Impairment
a broadly accepted term describing any particular level or degree of hearing loss, such as total or partial deafness and hard of hearing.