An organized collection of sounds in time that produce an uninterripted composition through the use of harmony, melody, rhythm, and other musical elements.
Musical Notation
Consisting of signs and symbols that are used to visually represent music.
Music Theory
Study of music through analysis of its written elements.

Element 1:


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Highness or lowness of a tune that is determined by frequency of sound.
Used to achieve certain pitches with assigned note names.

Element 2:



A sucession of notes or pitches that when played together create a certain musical phrase or concept.

Element 3:




The use of different pitches played in progeression with a melody.

Element 4:



Simply, counting. Note values.

Element 5:



Relates to the complementary tones of a harmony.

Element 6:



Harmonic tones  played in a progression that are considered “unpleasant” to the ear.

Element 7:



Refers to the softness or loudness of a note played in musical work.



Piano, p




mezzo, m

Medium or moderate

Is also used with p and f to create mp or mf; mezzo piano or mezzo forte.

Forte, f
gradually gets softer
gradually gets louder
poco a poco
“little by  little” volume gradually increases.
accent, > or ^
A stress marking a note for emphasis.
sforzando, sfz
strongly accented  note or chord

Element 8:



The overall sound of a musical work that is affected by the number and grouping of soundsmm instruments, and musical notations.
monophonic texture

a melody w/o harmony. Simplest of textures. 


Ex: Chanting in Medieval times.

Polyphonic texture
2 or more different melodies which can be independent of one another. Began in mid to late 14th century when 3 would be popes split the catholic church during the western schism. Merged secular and sacred music together, which shook foundation of traditional music worship.
Homophonic Texture
Uses multiple voices; only one stands out as the melody.All other musical sounds are background harmony.Appeared during medieval times.
heterophonic texture
sounds and voices often move in contrasting rhythyms and have different sound characteristics. Can take on polyphonic and monophonic qualities.

Element 9:



Type and structure of a particular music piece.
Optional, but typical. Prepares listener for first verse of song.