Hilldegard of Bingen:Closing chorus Ordo virtutum ca 1151
-Liturgical Drama
-About Virtures and devil
-Eye and Father highest notes
-melismatic lines at end
-Christ calls them to prayer
Leoninus: Viderunt omnes late 12th century and early 13th
-The words of the chant are said by the tenor in long values
-Tenor hold, duplum has melismatic lines that are fast and decorative (organum)
-Broken up by sections polyphony and monophony
-Tenor is rhythmic its discant (also have similar rhythm one to three notes duplum notes to tenor)
-All discant section cadence in organum
-In organum style it is unclear if duplum is in modes or free sung
-Gradual for christmas
Clausulae on Dominus from Viderunt omnes 26 late 12 early 13
-Rhythmic mode 5 in tenor (doted quater note)
-Duplum mode 1 and 5 (long short, and long)
Clausulae on Dominus from Viderunt omnes 29 late 12th early 13
-Both voice mode 2 and 5 (short long) most of the time
Perotinus: Viderunt omens 1198
-Organum quadruplum (four voices adding triplum and quadruplum)
-all upper voice use rhythmic modes
– The ranges overlap (all three upper voices go below tenor in range)
-Chant is in middle and end
Ave virgo virginum late 12th early 13
-Strophic- verses (each text stanza set to same music)
-Conductus-rhymed strophic metrical poem to sacred or serious topic. Newly composed tenor (no old material)
-Adressed to Virgin Mary
-In each strophic AAB for (more common secular than sacred)
-Mostly sllyabic
-three voices
Motets on Tenor Dominus 13th Century-Factum est salutare
-Early motets direct adaptation of discant clausula (music is the same new duplum text)
-Duplum with latin text called motetus
– Focuses same topic as original chant (christmas day)
Motet on Tenor Dominus 13th Century-Fole acostumance
-tenor is same as Fuctum est salutare except section on Do(minus) appears twice
-Poem is a attack on envy, jealousy… inspired by conflict with or within the church
-The only connection is the similar textural sound
-Tenor is the same as original dominus
Motet on Tenor Dominus 13th Century- Super tei/sed fulsit/Dominus
-Fragment of chant and creating a new tenor
-Uses the first half of Dominus melisma minus the first two notes its repeated
-A latin poem was used for upper two voices (the first half Triplum and second half duplum)
-The poem about jesus’s birth but not sung in mass (probably)
-Voices sing through other voice’s rest to keep a continues feel (characterized by later 13th century)
Motet on Tenor Dominus 13th Century- Super tei/sed fulsit primus tenor/Dominus
-has four parts (fourth part is called primus tenor)
-The priums tenor does not have words (might be just played by instruments)
-The Same as other one except for other voice
-English-sings a 3rd at end
Machaut: Rose, liz, printampes, vedure mid 14th century
-Its Rondeaux (love songs by trovere)
-Form ABaAabAB 13 lined song
-First section ends on D
-Second section ends on C
-The cantus (latin for song) is main melody
-Tenor is slower moving support
-opposite of early phonic
-Long melisma at beginning of each line
-4 parts from bottom to top (tenor, contra tenor, cantus, and triplum)
Machaut: La Messa de Nostre Dame Kyrie 1364
-Tenor has four measure Talea happens seven times
-Counter tenor has a larger Talea twice
-Use hocket syncopated eighth and quarter
Switches between polyphony and chant
Fancesco Landini: Non avra’ma’ pieta
-Balata came from dance (form AbbaA)
-Uses Landini Cadence
Dunstable: Quam pulchra es Before 1430
Contenance angloise
-Its motet that has equal voices
-Guided only by text Song of Solomon
-Landini cadence at end C
-Probably preformed by vocalist with no instruments
-Consonant vertically
Du Fay: Christe redemptor omnium 1430
-Uses fauxbourdon (two top parts were written bottom was improvised)
-Set for vespers
-Chant is paraphrased in cantus
-Uses of 3rd and 6th are characteristic of Renaissance
-Uses Landini cadence at the end
-Has many words (mostly syllabic)
Du Fay: Se la face ay pale 1430
-freely composed (does not follow the form)
-Blend of national French angular count tenor and syncopation, English-use of 3rd and 6ths, Italy smooth mostly step wise melodies)
Ockeghem: Missa prolationum 1450-97
-Goes through four different compositions of time and prolation
-Ockeghem wrote two parts and each part was read by two people (they would each read the part in a different time signature)
– Soprano and alto share the canon
-Tenor and bass share cannon in Kyrie I
– In Christe is a cannon at the second (up a secong) don’t sing them at the same time
-Drive to cadence (longer note values at beginning end with shorter note)
-Kyrie II is a cannon at the third and starts with the same idea as first Kyrie I
Josquin: Ave Maria… virgo serena 1484-85
-Most famous Josquin motet
-Starts with imitation
-m. 21 has homophony
-Josquin loves the uses duets
-Each section ends with cadence on C (5th)
-Also drives to the cadence
-Text two line from sequence of feast of the annunciation (uses the tune as a point of imitation)
-Then metric rhymed hymn (in stanzas Homophony)
-Ends with prayer
-text inspired music
Josquin: Missa Pange lingua 1515 (Kyrie)
• Point of Imitation3x
Take a Phrase of music and gives it to all voices at staggered entrances
o When they are all doing the same phrase its Point of Imitation
– Got his phrases from hymn/chant
• Puts chant in all voices
• He’ll change the pitches
– Called Paraphrase mass
• Kyrie
– At the beginning the first eight notes are unchanged so you recognize it plays 1st and 2nd
– The Ninth note he doesn’t play till mm. 5
• There are two measures of melody
– The bass plays chant as well
– Loves to introduce parts as pairs
• Tenor 1 bass 2
• Soprano 5 alto 6
– 10 mm. done with imitation
– Bass begins the chant in mm. 9 but he changes it around
• Christe
– Plays 3rd and 4th parts of original chant
– First to bass then alto, tenor, soprano
– M. 35 Next phrase
• Really changes the chants (only gives three notes before chant)
• Kyrie II
– Becomes more free plays 5th and 6th mass
• Leaves out first note of original
• 6th phrase at m. 60
– Every voice get further away from original
– Ends with 5th
Josquin: Missa Pange lingua 1515 (Credo)
-Much longer so less imitation
-Section of the mass that is paid close attention to text (text expression)
-Crucifixion resurrection
-Milks half step homophonic texture
-2nd section
-Uses imitation
-Ends with 3rd
Palestrina: Pope Marcellus Mass Agnus Dei I 1560
-Free mass/ 6 voices
-opening section sung nine times (serves as a head motive)
-Step motion or recovered leap
Du Fay: Missa Se la face ay pale (Gloria) 1430s
-Cantus firmus mass (tenor is borrowed from a chant)
-Cantus firmus is heard three times the duration, then twice as long
-Head Motive
-The final time it the same as the original
Victoria: O magnum mysterium motet 1570-80
-Most famous piece
-More expressive
-Changes from duple to triple
-Homophonic on last “aluia”
-Point of imitation
Victoria: Missa O magnum mysterium Kyrie 1570-80
-Motet was modified to fit
-Paired imitation between cantus and tenor and basus and altus
-All parts start with a drop of a fifth
Kyrie II
-Based on a point of imitation in the motet
-Reworked homophonic passage in motet and making it a new point of imitation
Lassus: Cum essem parvulus 1579
– uses text painting heavily
-When I was a child (sung by boys)
-Pauls thoughts are in two lower voices
-In a mirror high voices go down low voices go up