a short recurring figure that appears throughout a composition or section of music
considered the organic unit that unifies a larger expanse of music?
consists of distinctive melodic and/or rhythmic patterns from the underlying structure
a repeated pitch pattern that usually recurs accompanied by the same or a similar rhythmic pattern
melodic motive
a recurring rhythmic pattern in a piece of music
rhythmic motive
in most cases, this kind of motive functions independently of melodic patterns
rhythmic motive
the immediate restatement of a melodic motive or longer figure in the same instrumental or vocal part at a higher or lower pitch
each separate unit of the sequence
a sequence requires at least _ segments and no more than _
2; 3 0r 4
segments usually continue by the same ___ ___
interval distance
contains continuing segemtns that are exact transpositions of the first segment
real sequence
accomodates the diatonic scale, so the transposition is not always exact
tonal sequence
some of the segments may be decorated or embellished in a way that does not destroy their original character
modified sequence
repeats part of a figure and states the remainder in sequence
false sequence
a mixture of repetition and sequence
false sequence
a substantial musical thought usually ending with a harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic cadence
presents a complete musical thought
the presence of a ____ dstinguishes a phrase from a motive
phrases are USUALLY _ measures
phrases usually have slight melodic interruptions and thus divide into two ____ ____
phrase members
sufficiently separated (usually by a long note value or rest) to distinguish them as individual units
phrase members
USUALLY the second phrase member is either a ____ or a ____.
repetition; sequence of the first
two adjacent phrases may combine to form a period if:
1. the second phrase ends with a strong cadence (preferably a PAC)
2. the first phrase ends with a weaker cadence than the second (half cadence is popular)
3. the two phrases bear some musical relationship to each other (antecedent-consequent)
when two adjacent phrases both begin in the same manner
parallel period
when two phrases are not similar in melodic content
contrasting period
period organized as AAB or ABB; as long as the third phrase ends with a stronger cadence than either of the first two
period that allows for a variety of phrase relationships; the fourth phrase must bring the period to closure and should be at least as strong as any of the other phrases
four-phase period/ double period
not typically regarded as period structures because the second phrase iis not dependent on the first; thus, the antecedent-consequent concept does not apply
repeated phrases
change from minor to PARALLEL major or vice versa
change of mode
an extended phrase whose length has increased through the elongation of someo part of it
phrase extension
three types of phrase extensions:
1. beginning
2. internal
3. cadential (end)