Musical tones that are named A B C D E F G, repeated endlessly.
Tones eight letter names apart. C to C.
Octave equivalence
Two tones in an octave that sound similiar
Pitch class
Octave-related notes that have the same letter name. Ex. All D’s are in the same pitch class.
Piano White Key
These keys produce the notes of the seven letters of the musical alphabet, A B C D E F G
Piano Black key
These keys are named in relation to adjacent white-key pitches and represent Sharp or Flat notes.
The two possible names for a black key. Ex. C# and Db
The Sharp and Flat symbols
Natural Accidental
The third common accidental; it cancels a sharp or a flat. Returns the pitch to its natural state (white key location)
The distance between any two notes
Half Step (semitone)
The interval between any pitch and the next closest pitch on the keyboard
Whole Step (whole tone)
The combination of two half step intervals. It always has one note in between its two notes.
The lines and spaces used to notate music.
A symbol that appears to the far left of every staff that indicates what notes the lines and spaces of a staff represent
Treble Clef
A clef that is generally used for higher notes often played by the piano’s right hand. Also called the G clef
Ledger lines
Additional staff lines added above or below the staff. For example, Middle C has a ledger line in the treble-clef staff