the use of pitches foreign to the key of the passage
nonessential chromaticism
chromaticism in the way of NCTs
essential chromaticism
the use of tones from outside the scale as members of chords
altered chords
chords created by chromaticism outside of the scale
secondary function
a chord whose function belongs more closely to a key other than the main key of the passage
what is the most common sort of altered chord?
secondary dominant
what kinds of chords can be tonacized by secondary dominants?
major or minor
what does V/IV sound like?
what is the most common secondary dominant chord?
With secondary leading tones with 7ths, when do you used diminished and half diminished?
in minor, use diminished, in major, use either/or though fully diminished is more common
what are the most popular secondary leading tone chords?
ii, IV, iv, V, and vi
major or minor
key note
tonic note
if a piece starts in C what will it end in and why?
C, because pieces usually start and end in the same key, even c and C are still C
a shift of tonal center that takes place within an individual movement
a shift of tonal center that takes place within an individual movement
enharmonically equivalent keys
two keys that sound the same but are spelled differently
parallel keys
if a major key and a minor key have the same tonic tone
relative keys
if a major key and a minor key share the same key signature
what kind of keys are modulations most often found between?
closely related
closely related
if there is a difference of no more than one sharp or flat in their key signatures
how many keys are closely related to the starting key?
what relationship exists between pairs of keys that are not enharmonic, parallel, relative, or closely related?
foreign relationship – distantly related
pivot chord/common chord
serves as the pivot linking two tonalities
what are the least successful choices for common chords?
V and viidiminished
what is the most common modulation in a major key? In a minor key?
I to V and I to III or v
chromatic mediant relationship
the roots of the chords are a m3 or a M3 apart, both major or both minor triads