Harmonic axis of tonal music
includes I and V, the primary diatonic triads that form the harmonic axis of tonal music.
tendency tones( 7-1, 5-1, 4-3)
7 and 2 are melodic tendency tones. 7 to 1, 2 to 1 or 3. They are less stable than those of the tonic traid. Although 5 is stable as tonic harmony, it is unstable root of the dominant harmony and has a tendency to 1.
tonic function/dominant function
tonic- the opening of a phrase or piece need not to progress any particular chord.———–tonic and dominant chords provide the harmonic foundation of tonal music. By themselves they can define a key
Dominant-leads back to tonic.
a point of arrival that usually occurs at the end of phrase.
authentic cadence(full cadence)
closes to 5 to 1, Labeled as AC
half cadence-
those that close on a root position dominant
perfect authentic cadence/imperfect authentic cadence
sop moves to 2-1, or 7-1, and bass moves to 5-1/ sop moves to 5 or 3;7-1 or 2-1 constitutes as an imperfect cadence.
Contrapuntal cadence
Any other bass motion other than 7-1 or 2-1, being harmonically weaker than the more common leaping bass motions of 5 to 1…..so the second part of iac’s moving basses is contrapuntal cadences.
picardy third
idiom, in which tonic harmony that closes a piece will sometimes contain a raised third to form a major triad, satisfying closure.
a musical idea that is terminated by a cadence
common practice period
– time from 1650 to 1900 in which the basic principles governing harmonic practice were remarkably stable.
functional tonality
principles that provide an accepted way of viewing common harmonic practice.
when there are secondary tonal centers that are likely to be established through a process of changing keys( however the orig. key is brought back at the end.
harmonic progression(pison)
selecting and ordering of harmonies in such a way that they form coherent and effective units of several chords.
what chords are identified primarily by.(scale degree)
root progression
when thinking of how chord progression can be reduced to root succession, which can turn roman numerals into mere scale degrees
descending5ths (M,m)
M: I,iv,vii*, iii, vi, ii,V,I
m, i,iv,VII, III,VI,ii*,V,i
harmonic function
-the judgment that certain chords and tonal combinations of sound behave alike.ex.tonic, predominant and dominant are harmonic functions. be aware that the extension of a triad by a 3rd to include a 7th, or the inversion of a chord doesn’t change this.
chord substitution
the exchange of one diatonic chord for another which has the same direction in relation to the (tonic-dominant) harmonic axis.
harmonic function types
t-pd-d(tonic, predom,dom)-the structure of our phrases we explore to see what role they play in phrases found in musical literature associated with the common practice period.
phrase model
the harmonic motion of t-pd-d-t that guides a phrase from its beginning to its cadence.
roman numeral analysis
roman numerals we use to represent the qualities of diatonic chords on the harmonic rhythm.
contextual analysis
when we analyze the harmony of a given phrase, following the phrase model, thus supporting the Roman numeral analysis that spells out the chords of the harmonic rhythm.
harmonic rhythm
rate at which the harmony changes.
harmonic function diagrams(pag13)
major: iii, vi, ii-IV, V-vii*,i.
minor: VII, III, VI, ii*-iv, V-vii*, i
I, IV-ii,V, I/m: i, iv-ii*, V, i
normative harmonic function
diagrams(36251,m:736251/ or casey 1,4-2,5,1. )direct you of where typical root progressions lead from one chord to the next. 3-4, 5-4, 4-2, 4 to 1 7-1, 2 or 4 to 7 or 5, 7 or 5 to 1.
CASE SENSITIVE roman numerals
used to represent the qualities of diatonic chords, because scale degrees differ in major and minor.
when tonic extends for more than one measure or so…
Intro of species counterpoint
The study of ctrpnt directs our attention tothe combination and interaction of diff independent melodic lines. The duet of the sop bass show voice leading reductions and melody harmonizations. -it is the underlying frameworks follow many of the principles of species counterpoint.
Fux’s Gradus Parnassum(1725)/Cantus Firmus
this man discussed species technique-didactic method advocated by the eighteenth-century composer and theoris(johann joseph).the book attempts to systematize the teaching of counterpooint. Fux’s treatise formed the foundation for contrapuntall instruction during the Classical Period. Fux began his Gradus by adding a melodic line/counterpoint to a preexisting melody that consisted of pitches of equal duration(called cantus firmus)