What the Term “Romantic” means:
A cultural Movement that stressed emotion, imagination, and individualism.
Romanticism was in part a rebellion against the neoclassicism of the eighteenth century and the age of reason.
Freedom of expression.
Authors projected their personalties in their work.
Romantics were especially drawn to the realm of fantasy.
New artistic trends and compositional trends
Romantic painters used bolder, more brilliant colors and preferred dynamic motion to gracefully balanced processes.
The Importance of Literature and Music
Literature and writing greatly influenced music of this period. (See Program Music and Art Song.)
Influence of the world events on this area. (Napoleonic Wars, French Revolution.)
Because of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars, aristocrats could no longer afford private opera houses, orchestras, and “composers in residence.” Musicians lost their jobs, and many became “free-artists”, who often composed to fill inner desires rather than commission.
The influence of the Industrial Revolution:
Romantic Composers wrote primarily for a middle-class audience whose size and prosperity had increased because of the industrial revolution. During the 19th century, cities expanded dramatically, and a sizable number of people wanted to hear and play music. It became common for almost everyone to have a piano in their household.
More Effects of the formation of the urban middle class: (changes in the structure of society.)
Because more people could play and hear music (the people of the middle class) began to form many orchestras and opera groups. Public concerts became very common.
Changes in performance practices:
Public concerts became common. Because virtuosity became so important, musicians started hold solo concerts in addition to their orchestra appearances.
Audience expectations
The 19th Century Public was captivated by virtuosity. Private music making increased. With a piano being a standard fixture in almost every home, there was a great demand for songs and solo pieces.