Name 5 musical periods:
Middle ages, renaissance, baroque, classical, romantic
What was the name of church music in the middle ages?
(gregorian) chant
What musical period is the madrigal found in?
What change occurred in about 1600 in the way composers thought about music?
Single line of melody instead of polyphonic sound.
What did the single line of melody with accompaniment lead to?
recitatives and arias
When did opera begin?
What made the birth of opera possible?
desire to imitate Greek drama; group of amateur musicians in Florence, Italy reasoned that single line of melody is more expressive in terms of meaning of the words
What is the difference between opera, oratorios, cantatas and art songs?
Opera: staged, any subject, 2.5 – 3 hrs

Oratorios: not staged, religious theme, 2.5 – 3 hrs

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Cantatas: not staged, religious or secular, 20 min

Art songs: short and not staged

Famous example of oratorio? (music memory)
Handel’s “Messiah”
When a composer writes an art song what does he do first?
Selects a suitable poem.
What is the German and French word for art song?
German: Lied
French: Chanson
2 main reasons vocalists sing in foreign language:
Word placement; meaning lost in translating
What two forms to composers use for writing art songs?
strophic; through composed
Compare and contrast Beethoven and Schubert
Beethoven: proud, lonely, a dick, wealthy
Schubert: quiet, nice, lots of friends, poor
How many art songs did Schubert write?
Define monophonic music:
one sound
Define polyphonic music:
combining sounds, harmonizing
Define strophic and through composed form:
Strophic – same music different verses
through composed – new music each verse
Describe vocal music during the Renaissance:
polyphonic, madrigals and such
What ideas were popular at the end of the Renaissance and beginning of Baroque that led to opera?
gradiose dimensions; love of drama
Who were the Florentine Camerata?
the ‘society’ of intellectuals in Florence, Italy
Who wrote the first important opera and what was the name of it?
“Orpheus” by Monteverdi
What is the story line of “Dido and Aeneas”?
The story for Dido and Aeneas was adapted from part of the Aeneid by Virgil. Dido, Queen of Carthage, falls in love with Aeneas, who has landed in Carthage after fleeing from Troy after defeat in the Trojan War. However, some witches living near Carthage, who hate Dido, remind him that he is fated to go and be the founder of the Roman Empire. Aeneas leaves Dido, who is heartbroken and kills herself.
In the aria “Dido’s Lament” what is Dido singing about?
killing herself
What are the differences between an aria and a recitative?
Recitative – conversational, free in form

Aria – more songlike

What’s the difference between opera seria and opera buffa?
Seria = serious

Buffa = jokes

Know the story line of Don Giovanni as it relates to the Finale?
Somebody he killed comes back to kill DOOOOOOON GIOVAAAAAAANIII and takes him back to hell.
What should you expect when going to an opera?
Replace speaking with singing; sung in highly trained style; words in orig. language; distortion of time
Where did the custom of the replacement of speaking with singing come from?
recitatives and arias
What is the connection between voice types and various roles in an opera?
blah blah blah
How do opera composers use small ensembles and choruses in opera?
small ensembles of several characters singing choruses
What’s the function of orchestras in opera?
set the mood
What kind of opera dominated the opera world until the 19th century?
opera seria
What is the French name for opera buffa?
opera comique
What’s different about opera comique?
Not supposed to be funny; uses spoken dialogue; not as long and serious as opera seria
What type of opera is “Carmen”?
opera comique
Know 7 important opera composers and their musical periods:
Baroque: Monteverdi, Purcell

Classical: Mozart

Romantic: Bizet, Verdi, Puccini, Wagner

Define monody:
used at the end of the Renaissance; same as homophonic
Define libretto:
Libretto is text that makes up an opera.