Dates of the Romantic Period
Characteristics that Romantic movement stressed:
Tone color(timbre); colorful harmony; expanded range of dynamics, pitch and tempo; form was miniature and monumental
Impressionistic composer
Post-Romantic Composer
Important Romantic composers
Beethoven, Shubert, Berlioz, Mendelssohn, Chopin, Schumann, Liszt, Wagner, Verdi, Brahms, Tchaikovsky
Important Romantic piano composers
Liszt (imitated Paganini), Beethoven, Chopin (first of virtuoso)
Which composer is not a Romantic period composer? Schubert, Ives, Liszt, Tchaikovsky
What does rubato mean?
Slowing or speeding up the tempo. “Stretching” the tempo.
Who invented the piano and when?
Bartolomeo Cristofori circa 1700.
What was the most important keyboard instrument before piano?
What are the differences between the harpsichord and piano?
Piano strikes strings, harpsichord plucks strings.; Tone; number of keys; color of keys
How did Classical musicians differ from Romantic musicians in how they made a living?
Classical – worked for aristocracy
Romantic – employed themselves
Which individual lived as a “free agent” and spanned the change from Classical to Romantic?
What 3 kinds of music did Romantic composers write for middle class?
Virtuoso; amateur; orchestral transcriptions
Name two Romantic period performers and their instruments.
Paganini – violin
Liszt – piano
Genres of piano compositions:
sonata; nocturne; ballad; etudes; preludes; waltzs; mazurkas; polonaises;
3 parts of sonata-allegro form?
exposition; development; recapitulation
How many themes are included in the exposition of sonata-allegro form?
2 themes
What individual influenced the career choices of Chopin, Liszt and Schumann?
Where was Chopin from?
Warsaw, Poland
Why did Chopin leave Poland?
To tour Austria and Germany
Why was Chopin not able to return to Poland?
Warsaw was taken over by Russian army
Where did Chopin live after leaving his homeland?
Paris, France
Where did Chopin do most of his piano performing?
What is a salon?
Place where aristocrats, musicians and artists gathered for concerts. Home of rich bitch
What is a nickname for Chopin?
The Poet of the Piano
Where did Liszt live during his performance career?
Paris, France
Where did Schumann live?
small German town
Where was the artistic center of Europe during the early Romantic period?
Paris, France
long piece supposed to remind listener of Middle Ages ballad
designed to stress particular technical problem
short piano work
a “night” piece
a “stylized” dance
Polish dance; 3x time
proud and stately Polish dance
What 2 changes did Liszt make in the way piano virtuosos were performed?
Turned piano sideways; memorized his music
3 periods of Liszt’s life and how they influenced him.
Early life – diabolical; imitating Paganini

Middle Life – married and composed a lot

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Later life – became religious

Important facts about Robert and Clara Schumann:
He crippled his 4th finger in left hand; when married wrote 140 art songs; attempted suicide; when he died she performed his music
Difference between Miniature and Monumental compositions?
Miniature: Small works for intimate surroundings

Monumental: large works for large places

Differences between Baroque, Classical and Romantic concertos:
3 movements never changed; as time progressed soloist became more important; Baroque used “ritornello” form which means exposition was repeated. Classical did not repeat but added another exposition. Romantic dropped double exposition so soloist could come in sooner.
Character piece:
A short keyboard work expressing a mood or idea
Technical display by soloist
means “to consort together” and “to compete”; contradictory meanings