Little group of three

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commonly found in carribean music



Little group of 5

More complicated rhythm out of Tresillo and Cinquilo  

Creolized Music

Fusion or blending of different racial or cultural music styles.

African words, spanish can change via the dialect via the african influence


Thumb Piano- used as a base insturment

Wooden box with metal strips which are plucked by the player to produce different pitches

Racial Formations

Historical frames within which racial categories are created.

Ways societies are organized and experienced racially

Tri-ethnic heritage
European, African and Indigenous mixed



a process in which an ethnic group takes something from one culture and ‘re-interprets’ with their own culture
This is a process when one of a minority ethnic group where one foregoes their old culture and adapts to the practices of the dominant culture
When one of minority ethnic group completely objects to the new culture of the dominant ethnic group and asserts their own to show unique identity.
Ernesto Lecuona

* Wrote La Comparsa

Child Prodigy on Piano

* Hispano Cuban

* One of the first classically trained performers to work on afro cuban themes

“La comparsa” 

* Composition by Ernest Lecuona

* Street Processions in Havana

*About the struggles of Afro Cuban


Yoruba for Jungle and lush place

Jazz fusion group, led by Chucho Valdes

* Reafricanizing Cuban Music, as a part of a racial project that attempted to situate this heritage more prominently

Chucho Valdes

* Led the Jazz Fusion group Irakere




areito music-dance ceremony in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico involved the performance of chants in call-and-response style, accompanied by rattles of the maracas type, scrapers (güiro), and a hollow slit drum (known as a mayohuacán). Any possibility of musical continuity from pre-Columbian times into the colonial period in the Caribbean islands was lost with the rapid decimation of Indian populations caused by the spread of European diseases, the conditions of forced labour, intertribal wars, and mass suicide.



island with current day haiti and dominican republic

Spanish colonized there



a mandolin-like instrument with six pairs of

doubled strings


6 double strings guitar

big belly


string based music

incorporating sung poetry

Music Jibaro
Country music from Puerto Rican

type of seis

type of christmas carol

religious traditional songs in Dominican Republic

some are heard all year long

asaltos navideños

“Christmas Assalts”

Singers move from house to house singing aguinaldos demanding food and drink before moving on to the next house



Poetry found in ten line stanzas- Spanish derived musical heritage

Seis can be in décima form




* is the cuban term used to describe decima poetry in seis


This is when two decima singers are dueling

Singers are called Repentistas

Folk Catholicism
Local expressions and celebrations of the catholic faith; such as street processions- less orthadox
Middle Passage
Part of the triangular trading route where the slave ships sailed
rural slave barracks
community based religious and social groups that perpetrated cultural traditions in the cities.
Runaway slave communities

*A dance music traditionally played at parties

* Call and response form

* Drummer responds to the dancer

*Has the Buleador (Bass drum), maraca (for the pulse), Cua (Keeps the cinquillo beat), Seguidor (Soloist that keeps the beat)

Loíza Aldea

Small Afro-Puerto Rican town outside of San Juan

Had a variant of Bomba, performed during all seasons but especially during fiesta patronal of the apostle santiago


lower bass drum of bomba
two sticks that execute the cinquillo pattern in bomba
bomba sica
particular style of bomba, commonly heard in latin american and puerto rican pop music- performed in duple meter (played in class)


round frame drum similar to a tambourine

Seguidor- Low Range 

Segundo- Middle range

Requinto- High range


Puerto Rican Folk Guitar
Calabash scraper, keeps the 8th note pulse

Creolized folkloric pop music, first working class form of music to become popular among all social classes

Instrumentation: panderetas, guiro, cuatro and accordian

Call and Response


Los Pleneros de la 21

Social activism musical group from New York, that teaches Plena and Bomba to entrench puerto rican culture

* Wrote Patria Boriquena


Archaic old catholic tradition of singing to Mary

performed at velaciones which are devotional events in private homes or churches, or brief street processions

Lyrics are the most important part

brisk tempo with marked beat, call and response


African-Dominican groups that promoted musical traditions with african influence

haitian dominican religious system

involves the veneration of ancestor spirits, African deities, and indigenous

leaders of the past

posession of initiates by misterios


Small drum held between the knees also known as tamborita; during salve music

medium drum can be played horizontally on the ground using foot dampening and finger gliding techniques or upright

Rafael Trujillo

Dictator in the Dominican Republic

*Inhibited the exchanged of music


Region in the dominican republic that is known for its “whiter” populations

Merengue tipico surfaced here

perico ripiao/merengue típico

* Folkloric style derived from the working class

* Tambora, guira, button accordion, bass, and saxaphone

* Dominican Republic (Specifically Cibao region)


scraper in merengue

Plays quick eighth note patters

double drum in salve and merengue from the dominican republic, dominant hand uses stick to strike side, weak hand strikes head of drum
instrumental introduction

Strophic verse section

body of merengue song

follows the paseo

Call and response section of Merengue music
Juan Luis Guerra

* wrote visa for a dream


*Highly regarded lyrics

“Visa pa’ un sueño” 

Written by Juan Luis Guerra

Highly regarded lyrics

ironic video 

lyrics about immigration


dieties of santeria believed to be kings, ancestors, etc.o

also a religion of yoruba where santeria comes from each oricha has specific powers and personalities linked to nature

they have a specific repretory of songs (cantos), toques (rhythms), and dance moves

approx. 24 main ones


lead singer in santeria instrumentation


lead oricha as the god of crossroads

all ceremonies of santeria start with opening up by his performance to allow for possession by the orichas

one of the three warrior gods


oricha of santeria

one of the three warrior orichas

wounded oricha


santeria oricha

oricha of the forest


one of the three warrior orichas


richa of santeria

doctor oricha (of medicine)

in the tratados song (with the 3 warrior orichas)


west african language commonly seen in creolized music like santeria


Afro-Cuban religion derived from Orisha religion of the Yoruba and Fon (Nigeria and Benin)

batá drums


sacred drums of santeria, slowly became exposed to the public


toques de guiro

refers to beaded gourds of santeria music

“Secular” celebrations giving thanks to oricha(s), marking the initiation anniversary of a devotee, or other reasons/celebratory occasions 

Instrumentation: lead singer (akpwon), a chorus, one or two conga drums, a metal bell, and three round-ish dried gourds (i.e. güiros or chéqueres) of different sizes (from smallest to largest, primero, segundo, caja)

chéqueres (primero, segundo, caja)
instruments closely associated with Ochun


CD track 1

songs for orichas that develop through the performance

of course as always start general opener to all then with ellegua, go through the 3 warrior gods, then end with inle


introduced in the Caribbean the 18th century and popularized across all social classes 

žOriginally a line or circle dance 

žCuban contradanza: AABB (binary form) 

žMusic of the Cuban contradanza: incorporated the cinquillo, tresillo, and habanera rhythms in the melodies and accompaniment


instrumentation: violins, clarinet, cornet, trombone (eurpean)


late 19th century – cuban

žRondo-like musical form: ABACA 

žCouple dance 

žCinquillo-variant (fig. 5.3, p. 6): underlying rhythmic pattern which include 4-note attacks alternating with the 5-note cinquillo pattern

now use charanga ensemble (not orquesta tipica)


musical form of danzon – ABACA form


cuban music

son clave pattern played by claves: short short long long long short short long long long

montuno pattern is ostinatto and repeats – syncopated to match clave

martillo pattern – bongo pattern to keep steady beat

bell, maracas, and anticipated bass pattern


verse form of son marked by eurpoean harmonic progressions




cyclic section of son marked by call response (African)

Conga drum- held between the knees
Bongo drums or bongos are a Cuban percussion instrument consisting of a pair of single-headed, open-ended drums attached to each other. 

hammer pattern

* Constant eighth notes/accented strokes on the smaller head of the drum on beats one and three of the 4/4 measure and on beat four of the larger head

smaller guitar instrument with 3 double strings usually tuned in triad
are shallow single-headed drums with metal casing, invented in Cuba
Son Clave
Two measure repeating pattern with two strokes on one side and one on the other
“Son de la loma”
“They’re from the hills” – Son from the hills of cuba
nueva canción
genre of socially engaged song- closely linked to folkloric styles 
“La borinqueña,” 
song talking about puerto rican annexation to the united states

Rafael Hernández


wrote preciosa

Lamento borincano

written by Rafael Hernandez

One of his best known works

tells the story of a poor farmer who travels to sell his produce but can’t because of the depression

El costo de la vida

*The cost of life

*anti-capitalist undertones



nueva cancion in cuba

also used to refer to musica jibaro

nueva trova
music of cuban youth who were affected by the cuban revolution
Pablo Milanés

one of the most prominent artist in the movement of nueva trova

afro cuban- interested in incorperating traditional styles of music in his repetoire

Silvio Rodríguez

prominent figure in Nueva Trova


Pobre es el cantor
by pablo Milanes

Carlos Varela

added electrified rock to nueva trova characterizes 60’s and 70’s