Importance of the Catholic Church
-only source of church
-divine office (everyday worship)
-mass (worship service)
-Patronage service (church number one)
Pope Gregory
-credited for having system of music for church organization anc chant notation
Characteristics of Gregorian Chant
-plainsong, plain chant
-sung both in mass and divine office
-sung in Latin
-flexible rhythm and tempo w/o meter
-unmeasured, free flowing rhythm
-no major/minorkey system
proper mass
text is changed according to church
orginary mass
Agnuus Dei
Liturgy of Music
music in literature of Catholic Church service
Two kinds of mass
proper mass and orginary mass
melisma (melismatic)
a series of notes are assigned to one syllable of text
one note for each syllable
what was the early polyphonic texture
drone-like held chant melody in bottom voice, added line to top movign with shorter note
Hildegard of Bingen
-best known female composer
characteristics of Secular Music
-played by improvisation, and passed by oral tradition
-non-religious music, using vernacular
everyday language of a particular region
started out as traveling musician/entertainers/typically instrumentalists attached to a court
status of woman in the middle ages
not allowed to participate in services, but active in convent
general characteristics of Renaissance Music
-‘known’ composers, credit
-concept of composition
-vocal music was more important than instrumental music
Josquin des Prez
-the most influential figure
-composed both sacred and secular music
characteristics of Renaissance vocal music
-music-making in home–aristocratic entertainment, for amateur performance
Cantus firmus
music based on Gregonian chant melodies
when one voice is presented and hten restated immediately by another voice
-note against note
-the compositional procedure, pratice of combining melodically independent parts
contrapuntal style
polyphonic texture
a cappella
singing without instruments
Martin Luther
-father of both reformation and protestant congregational singing
strophic form
musical form in which multiple stanzas of text are set to the same melody
Lutheran Chorale
-a hymn designed for congregational singing
characteristics of madrigal
-a peice for multiple voice parts set to secular poem
-sung in vernacular
composed in th 16th and early 17th century
word painting
musical representation of specific poetic images, often found in Renaissance and Baroque music, stragedy used to highlight meaning in text
Renaissance instrumental music
-indended for dancing, mostly improvisded
the most popular instrument, transcribed from vocal or dance music
solo vocal songs with lute accompaniment
general characteristics of Baroque music
-representation of clear emotion states, drastic changes of mood
-sudden changes in dynamic level, no gradual change
continuity of rhythm
beat is far more emphasized and steady tempo
-one melody
-mono+melody+instr. music
Claudio Monteverdi
-composed madrigal and operas
-the 1st composer of opera production
-introduced opera as a major art form
Henry Purcell
-first English composer of his day
-served as an organist of Westminster Abbey
male singer whose role is woman on stage
major innovation in muscial genre, involves music, acting, poetry, dance, and costume
combination of singing and speech, flexible rhythm following inflection of the text
accompanied lyrical style singing, melodic and expressive
the text to be sung in an opera
group of singers, homophonic texture to understand words, less text to emphasize certian mood or work