What is significant about Greek notation
minimal amounts still exist
Dont know what it sounded like
scholar differ on how to interpret it
What was the Epitaph of Seikilos
A Greek drinking song
music noatation was carved into tombstone
Fom writings and paintings Greek music was likely what 3 things
involved improvisation
involved voices and instruments
What were the 2 Greek instruments
Lyre and Aulos
what is a lyre
a Greek string instrument
what is an aulos
player held 2 pipes in mouth in a v shape
What lasting influence did the Greeks have
their concepts concerning music have profoundly influenced he history of western art music
what are some eaxamples of modern words with Greek origins
melody, harmony, symphony, orchestra, chorus
how did the greeks combine music with other art
the sang poetry
included dance with music
Due to their musical interaction with other arts the greeks had a lasting impact on what?
songs, opera, chorus, and ballet
the notion of proper music is _____ relevant now but was _____ relevant in the history of Christianity
What does a musical therapist do
uses music to relieve distress
What do Greek myths of music describe
overwhelming even magical powers of music
What are 2 examples of Greek musical mythology
Orpheus could move rocks by playing lyre
Orpheus used his music to enter hades and bring his wife back from the dead
What is ethos?
musical moral and ethical aspect
how it effects mood
What did the Greeks believe music was able to do
not only change ones mood but their very self
heal the sick
who explored acoustics?
what is acoustics
the science of sound
give 2 examples of pythagoras exploring acoustics
tuning of musical instruments
measured intervals based on consonance and dissonance
Based on the greek music theory how is a octave created
by shortening the string to half the original length
Based on the greek music theory how is a fifth created
by shortening the string to 2/3 original length
Based on the greek music theory how is a fourth created
by shortening the string to 3/4 original length
Using _________ the Greeks developed a system of seven note scales called _______
pythagorean intervals
Why is the greek mode system relevant
we still use the names today
Describe the Apollo religious sect’s music
calm, orderly, balanced (classical)
describe the Dionysus religious sect’s music
racous, suitable for drama, revelry, and competitive games (romantic)
What is the classical approach to art
more restrained, emphasis on formal design
what the romantic approach to art
more concerned with emotional expression
Who conquered the Greeks
the roman empire
Did the Romans embrace greek pratcices?
What happened to europe after the fall of rome?
left in turmoil
arts did not flourish
When was the medieval period?
when was the renaissance period
when was the baroque period?
when was the classical period?
when was the romantic period
The arts began to flourish after the ____ century being supported by______
rising christian church
Describe the historical perspective of the medieval period
chaotic period of social an political unrest
near constant warfare
long periods of drought, famine, and widespread disease
Describe the Medieval piece of art Annunciation, and who created it?
An angel announces to Mary that she will be the mother of Jesus
Simone Martini
Describe the medieval piece of art South Rose Window, and Where is it located
it features Christ enthroned at the center with angels and agents of the apocalypse, reference from the book of Revelation
Chartres Cathedral
What was so important about the Christian Church in the Medieval period
only effective unifying force in the western world
tried to suppress other religions and brig everyone to christianity
Only what type of music was considered worthwhile to the medieval christian church
vocal music with a religious text
What happened to instrumental music in the medieval period
it was destroyed or allowed to disappear
Christians adopted ancient rites from what cultures?
Jewish and Greek
What ancient rites did the Greeks adopt form the jewish and greek cultures
daily prayer hours
singing of psalms
chanting during church
What is a gregorian chant
singing of religious text to simple melodies
Describe Gregorian chant
it is a-capella
rhythm is free and flexible
describe syllabic Chant
one note of music per syllable
describe melismatic chant
many notes per syllable
What did Pope Gregory do?
organize the body of chants for easier use by churches
didnt actually compose chant
What was used in early chant composition
what are neumes
squiggly lines that reminded monks of the melodic contour
what did later chants use in composition
four lined staff
what is four lined staff
indicates staff more percisely
Who was the Hildegard of Bingen
Woman who lived in convent
developed reputation as composer of sacred song an chant
what was significant about the hildegard of bingen
most composers were anonymous
describe hildegards melodies
original compositions
wide range of pitch
wide interval leaps
had drone accompaniment
what is a drone
sustained tone sung by other singers
how was early harmony created
by monks adding a line of melody parallel to the original chant melody
how was polyphony created
monks eventually added 2 or more melodies that became independent of the original chant
who was Guillame de Machaut
french composer
what was Quillame de Machaut’s best work
Messe de Notre Dame
What does Renaissance mean
what happened during the renaissance
there was renewed interest in the classical arts of Greece and Rome
What was most renaissance music considered
describe sacred renaissance music
what is polyphonics
many independent and vocal meodies
Who was Giovanni Pierluigi de palestrina
wrote mostly sacred music for catholic church
describe Palestrina’s music
it was polyphonic but he made sure text was clearly audible
What songs were used in the mass of Pope Marcellus
Lamb of God
who takest away the sins of the world
have mercy upon us
Who wrote lamb of God
Agneis Dei
who wrote “who takest away the sins of the world”
Quitollis Peccata Mundi
who wrote “have mercy upon us”
Misere Nobis
what were the renaissance instruments
recorders, trumpets, trombones
how is the lute played
strings are plucked
how is the clavichord played
strings plucked with piece of metal
describe baroque music
teemed with drama and contrast
secular art assumed importance with religious works
Classicists thought what of baroque music
critical of it
using baroque meant odd or rough
what do listeners today think of baroque music
rich and inspired
baroque painting featured what
the effect of light on objects
blinding light, religious fervor, and dramatic actions
Describe the conversion of St. paul painting
by carvaggio
saul falls off horse blinded by light as God calls his name
Describe baroque sculpture
very dramatic
What 2 important structures did david bernini make
apollo and daphne
describe the statue of david
shows david hurling a stone at goliath
describe the statue of apollo and daphne
as apollo persues daphne her father turns her into a tree
What did baroque composers do
wrote sacred and secular music in equal quality and quantity
wrote instrumental and vocal music in equal quality and quantity
who were the primary employers of baroque composers
the church, upperclass courts, and governments
Describe the musical contrast of baroque music
very high
contrasted in mood, tempo, key etc.
what genres of music were featured in the baroque period
sonato, concerto, symphony, and dance
describe the musical texture of baroque music
older polyphonic style
also used new homophonic texture
describe musical harmony of baroque music
composers wrote and thought of harmony in terms of vertical chords instead of horizontal
who was claudio monteverdi
first composer of early opera 1567-1643
wrote L’orfeo
describe L’orfeo
just before orfeo is to be married his fiancee dies
he vows to follow her to the underworld and bring her back to life or stay with her there
based on Greek story
who invented musical drama
the Greeks
what was significant about opera in the baroque period
one of the most important developments
first skillful blending of all the arts
what are the 2 styles of singing opera
Describe recitative opera singing
suitable for rapid dialogue
melody reflects natural inflection of text
rhythm was free and flexible
texture was homophonic
describe aria opera singing
purpose: character reflects on events
melody designed to express emotion
rhythm is metered
follows formal design
texture is homophonic
what is an oratio
a dramatic work similar to opera
describe an oratio
singers are not characters
singers perform as equal members with orchestra on stage
chorus used extensively
also involve solo singer
what was “messiah”
Work contemplating the life of Christ
written by Handel
What was Handel’s most famous work
describe the hallelujah chorus of messiah
intro: string and harpsichord play joyful motive
hallelujah sung then again in different key
describe the for the lord chorus of messiah
monophonic chorus
trumpets and timpani respond homophonically
What string instruments were used in baroque orchestra
violin, viola, cello, and bass
what woodwinds were used in baroque orchestra
oboe, bassoon, flute, recorder
what brass instruments were used in baroque orchestra
trumpet and french horn
what were different about baroque instruments
stringed instruments used gut strings
flutes made from wood
trumpets didnt have valves
Describe the Harpsichord
each key connected to a plectrum that plucked strings
regular member of baroque orchestra
gradually stopped being used around 1750
describe baroque instrumental music
melody wasnt tuneful
harmony changes fast and complex
tempo steady and driving
dynamics were terraced with sudden contrast
What are the textures for baroque instrumental and vocal music
who were the major baroque composers
claudio monteverdi
antonio vivaldi
johann bach
George Handel
Bach’s music featured what
complex polyphony
what is a fugue
a polyphonic composition
What is Vivaldi most known for
composing over 500 concertos, most for violin
what is vivaldis most famous work
the 4 seasons
describe the 4 seasons
is programmatic
each concerto made up of 3 movements
lots of contrast
what is it mean if music is programmatic
based on something other than the music
describe the form of spring in “the 4 seasons”
a ritournello alternates between contrasting sections of music
each sections depicts an aspect of the sonnet
describe the winter part of “the 4 seasons”
mostly in minor key
tempo is very fast
what is a ritournello
music that returns in a piece
describe bach’s “bradenburg concerto no. 2”
concerto grosso
soloists are trumpet, oboe, recorder, and violin
describe the first movement of Bradenburg concerto no. 2
melody isnt tuneful
harmony fast changing
rhythm is driving
texture is polyphonic
mood is cheerful
describe the 2nd movement of Bradenburg concerto no. 2
tempo is slow and unsteady
meter in 3
key is minor
dynamics are quieter
mood is serious
describe the 3rd movement of Bradenburg concerto no. 2
tempo is very fast
meter in 2
key is major
dynamics are louder
mood is joyous
who were the consummate classicists
Franz Joseph Haydn
Wolfgang Mozart
Ludwig Beethoven
Describe Haydn’s music
pleasant and good natured
describe mozart’s music
alot of invested emotional expression
describe beethoven’s music
early works considered classic
middle and later works were romantic
how is classical music different from baroque
composer’s valued emotional restraint
music is simpler
melodies more tuneful
Who were the main classical music audiences
rising middle class
upper class
describe classical harmony
simpler than baroque
chords change more slowly
describe classical texture
writing one melody with chords helped the audiences hear the melody better
describe classical dynamics
crescendos and diminuendos indicated for first time
dynamic range was larger and more subtle
What string instruments were used in a standard classical orchestra
violins, viola, cello, bass
what woodwind instruments were used in a standard classical orchestra
2 flute, 2 clarinet, 2 oboe, 2 bassoon
what brass instruments were used in a standard classical orchestra
trumpet, french horn, trombone
what percussion instruments were used in a standard classical orchestra
mostly timpani
what did the fortepiano do
replaced harpsichord as main keyboard instrument
not a regular orchestra member
what was the “new” pianoforte
felt covered hammers strike the strings
allowed for total dynamic control
classical composers wrote music according to ________ forms
preset balanced
What was significant about form in classical music
classical music was form conscious
multi-movement works
describe sonata form
relies on tuneful melody
melody development is audible
what happens in sonata form expositions
main melodies get introduced
what happens in sonata form developement
melodies from exposition get developed and performed
what happens in sonata form recapitulation
original melodies restated, coda ending often happens
What is the context for standard forms
standard forms set up audience expectations
then break said expectations and create surprise
Describe Rondo Form
involves the alternation between sections of music that return (A) with contrasting sections (BCD)
happens most often in final movement
what is a coda ending
returns briefly to the opening meody
Describe Haydn
grandfather of classical music
taught beethoven briefly
who was the grandfather of classical music
describe mozart
child prodigy on piano
died in his 30s
describe beethoven
studied with Haydn
early works classical
later works romantic
what replaced the harpsichord as the major keyboard instrument
the fortepiano
What became the predominant texture in classical music
Greek music had more ______ and _______ than previous music
What was the Epitaph of Seikilos found on
a tomb stone
Christians oppressed performances addressed to what
Greek and Roman Gods