Swing Names
Fletcher Henderson, Benny Goodman, Gene Krupa, Teddy Wilson, John Hammond
Swing Music
Wrappin it up- Fletcher Henderson
Sing, Sing, Sing- Gene Krupa
Body and Soul- Benny Goodman Trio
evolved from early jazz
Benny Goodman- first to popularize swing- radio show- Lets Dance
Swing- carefree and light diversion from stress
Swing Big Band Rhythm
4 instruments- Drums, Guitar, Piano, Bass
Drums- bass drum every beat, high hat every other beat
Guitar- strum chords every beat
Piano- rooted w ragtime, alternates bass notes and chords, 10ths
Bass- walking bass, every beat
Swing Big Band Horn
Trumpet- 3-4
Trombone- 2-3
Reed- 4-5
Swing Arranger
Full ensemble- all sections play together
Melody and Accompaniment- one/two sections play melody, one/both of others play accompaniment
Call and Response- one call other responds
Riffs- repeated rhythmic figures, pyramiding- one piled on another
Improvised Solos- one instrument accompanied by rhythm section
Swing Piano
lighter than STRIDE- used microphone
mostly oom-pah beat
more single notes in RH
fast RUNS in RH
Walking 10ths in LH
Mid-West Swing (Kansas City Swing) names
Count Basie
Freddie Green
Jo Jones
Walter Page
Lester Young
Mid-West Swing (Kansas City Swing) Music
One O’Clock Jump- Count Basie
Lester Leaps In- Count Basie and Lester Young
Mid-West Swing (Kansas City Swing)
emphasis on groove and swing itself
no written arrangements- HEAD arrangements- improvised
blues, riffs, improvised solos
Mid-West Swing (Kansas City Swing) Great Rhythm Section
Count Basie- first great rhythm section
swing more than any other
perfectly synchronized, perfect sense of beat
Count Basie- piano
Freddie Green- Guitar
Walter Page- Bass
Jo Jones- Drums
Mid-West Swing (Kansas City Swing) continued
comping- playing of chords in a random-like way, modern way of playing in rhythm section
COMP short for accompany or compliment

Basies piano style- light, sparse, space, high register “splinks” and “splanks”

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Lester Young-
cool player
little vibrato, light tone,
HORIZONTAL PLAYER- more interested in melody than harmony which made for more complex harmonic effect by emphasizing upper chord extensions or by using Substitute Chords

Duke Ellington Names
Duke Ellington
Cootie Williams
Johnny Hodges
Joe Nanton
Jimmy Blanton
Harry Carney
Duke Ellington Music
In a Mellotone- Cootie Williams, Johnny Hodges
Ko-ko- Joe Nanton, Jimmy Blanton
Duke Ellington
scoring across sections- blending instruments in different sections
ex- clarinet, muted trumpet, tenor sax- new sound
Duke Ellington continued
Jungle Music-
played in cotton club
use of mutes, unusual sounds (growls and grunts) to create exotic soundscape
Duke Ellington continued
tone color- sound- blended different instruments to create new sounds,
wrote for each player, not instrument
rarely people left the band
Glenn Miller names
Glenn Miller
Tex Beneke
Marion Hutton
The Modernaires
Glenn Miller music
I’ve Got a Gal in Kalamazoo- Glenn Miller
Glenn Miller
led most popular band during WWII

played in Army Air Force band

Singers from the Swing Era names
Billie Holiday
Lester Young
Frank Sinatra
Nelson Riddle
Cole Poster
Ella Fitzgerald
Louis Armstrong
George and Ira Gershwin
Tommy Dorsey
Singers from the Swing Era music
All of Me- Billie Holiday
Ive Got You Under My Skin- Frank Sinatra
The Can’t Take That Away From Me- Ella Fitzgerald and Louis Armstrong
Singers from the Swing Era
Billie Holiday-
not great voice but great singer
Vocal phrasing and rhythm
lyrics- phrasing resulted from trying to convey meaning of words
changed melody and rhythm for dramatic effect
personal statements with lyrics
did not scat sing

Frank Sinatra
first to fully exploit the microphone
used as extension of voice
held and manipulated it- moving to and from mouth for effects
stressed consonants- more like speech, more direct, clear diction
Concept album- conceiving it as a complete work, songs connected by common theme or mood
LP record album- long playing

Ella Fitzgerald
scat singing- probably best ever

Bebop Names
Dizzy Gillespie
Charlie Parker
Max Roach
Curly Russell
Kenny Clarke
Thelonious Monk
Bebop Music-
Willow Weep for Me- Art Tatum
Shaw ‘Nuff- Dizzy Gilespie and Charlie Parker
Koko- Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker
Parker’s Mood- Charlie Parker
Art Tatum
influenced Bebop
technique- fat notes and tempos
advanced harmonic language and art of reharmonization

runs- very fast in either or both hand at the same time

Minton’s Playhouse- after hours club in Harlem
place where bebop began and first developed
founding fathers
Dizzy Gillespie- trumpet, Thelonious Monk- piano, Kenny Clarke- drums

Bebop differs from swing-
tempos- fast tunes faster, slow tunes slower
harmony- complex chords and chord progression
rhythm- more complex in melodies and rhythm section

Bebop Continued
rhythm section
DRUMS- hi hat on beats 2 and 4
bass drum no longer on every beat
snare and tom-toms- random-like accents
PIANO- no longer keeps pulse
comps- random-like playing of chords
BASS-keeps pulse or beat in more aggressive way
guitar no longer necessary

horns- usually 2 player- trumpet and sax
no real arangement

melodies- emphasis on upper chord tones and altered chord tones to construct melodies- 9ths, 11ths, 13ths
evolution= Beiderbecke-Lester Young- Bebop

harmonic rhythm- quick- chords change more often than in earlier jazz

Bebop Continued
phrase lengths- uneven, unpredictable, two and a half, three, five measures
accents- unpredictable, uneven, could be on any note and any beat or between beats
direction- abrupt changes in direction

rhythm- complex music

Pop songs
original tunes- based on pop songs
used chord progressions and tunes from standard pop songs and wrote new melodies on them

rhythm changes
most commonly used chord progressions or chard
Changes was from George Gershwin’s “I got rhythm” became so common it is commonly referred to as “rhythm changes”- short for “I Got Rhythm” Changes

Bebop Pianists names
Bud Powell
Thelonious Monk
Max Roach
Curly Russell
Milt Jackson
Bebop Pianists music
A Night in Tunisia- Bud Powell
Misterioso- Thelonious Monk
Bebop Pianists
Thelonious Monk
Piano style
stark, dissonant sounds
percussive attacks
unexpected rhythms and notes

bends notes- illusion of note bending

Bebop Pianists
Latin Jazz
Dizzy Gillespie pioneered Latin Jazz in 1940s
Latin and Jazz have common roots
Latin music evolved in different ways from Jazz- language key factor

Afro-Cuban Jazz- style term for this music mostly inspired by Afro-Cuban music

Monk Tunes based on one of two ideas
if two- combine them in ingenious ways
melody and harmony usually mutually dependent on eachother