“tail” final and concluding section of a musical composition
in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject; in sonata-allegro form, the principal section, in which all thematic material is presented
chamber music
music, usually instrumental music, performed in a small concert hall or private residence with just one performer on each part
in sonata-allegro form, the return to the first theme and the tonic key following the development
alberti bass
instead of having the pitches of a chord sound all together, the notes are played in succession to provide a continual stream of sound
opera seria
a genre of opera that dominated the stage during the baroque era, making use of serious historical or mythological subjects, de capo arias, and a lengthy overture
theme & variations
a musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of the music
an elaborate lyrical song for solo voice
opera buffa
“comic opera” an opera on a light, often domestic subject, with tuneful melodies, comic situations, and a happy ending
a dramatic musical form of the classical and romantic period involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda
genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also the orchestral ensemble that plays this genre
an ensemble, vocal or instrumental, with three performers, also, a brief, self contained composition contrasting with a previous piece, such a a minuet or a polonaise; originally the trio was performed by only three instruments
the center most portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence; it is often the most confrontational and unstable section of the movement
vocal ensemble
in opera, a group of four or more solo singers, usually the principles
string quartet
a standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of a first and second violin, a viola, and a cello; also the genre of music, usually in three or four movements, composed for this ensemble
the text of the opera
in sonata-allegro form the unstable section in which the tonality changes from tonic to dominant, or relative major, in preparation for the appearance of the second theme
an instrumental work for a small ensemble originally intended as a light entertainment in the evening
a showy passage for the soloist appearing near the end of the movement in a concerto; it usually incorporates rapid runs, arpeggios, and snippets of previously heard themes into a fantasy like improvisation
“work” term adopted by composers to enumerate and identify their compositions
rounded binary
compositional form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material from the first, each section is usually repeated
ancient musical form, surviving into the 20th century, in which a refrain alternates with contrasting material
musically heightened speech, often used in an opera, oratorio, or cantata to report dramatic action and advance the plot
introductory movement, usually for orchestra, that precedes an opera, oratorio, or dance suite