• panpipes- found in musical traditions in many parts of Latin America
  • Principle instrument of Nueva Cancion
  • International diffusion
  • Contemporary use 
    • Andean emsembles
    • rurual festivals 
    • urban clubs 



Bolivian k’antu

  • Ceremonial panpipe music from altiplano
  • “Kutirimunpaq”- Quechua, “so that we can return”
    • Kallawaya people who cultivate crops and raise livestock
    • Circle dance (20-30 players)
    • Phukuna of many sizes
    • Played in dry seaon 


  • Two panpipes= one instrument 
  • Hocketing- two seperate instruments create 1 melody through alternative notes
  • IRA
    • 6 tubes
    • Leader
    • Masculine
  • Arca
    • 7 tubes 
    • follower
    • feminine 


  • Melody
    • Pentatonic- 5 notes predominate 
    • accomodated to european scale 
    • timbre 
  • Texture
    • homophonic or heterophonic 
  • Rhythm
    • Steady beat, metrical
  • Form
    • AABBCC

Andean ensembles

  • more recent combination of instruments 
  • reflects transnational movements of musicians and instruments 
  • urban and rural performance 
  • international contexts 
    • Concert halls, folk festivals, malls, street corners, subways 
  • Sanjuan “Illuman Tiyu”
    • Kenas, Violin, Guitar, Bombo
    • Isometric rhythm (s L s L L L L L)
    • “Distilled ballad” 

Nueva Cancion

  • Social, political, and aesthetic movement
  • late 60s to early 70s
  • alignment of musicians with rural, working class and indigenous populations
  • folk and pan-latin american muscle elements
  • support for socialist and communist candidates including Salvador Allende 


  • Nueva Cancion
  • Northern Andean repertiore
  • Charango, quena, zampona, bombo 
  • Example: El aparecido 

Victor Jara

  • Nueva Cancion
  • Theater direction, musician, activist
  • Pan-Latin American and international influences 
    • ex: El martillo
  • Local Chilean traditions 
    • El Lasso

Violeta Parra

  • Nueva Cancion
  • folklorist, songwriter, visual artist
  • transformed urban representations of rural music and culture
  • taught many Nueva cancion artists 
  • Ex: Gracais a la vida 

Golpe Militar

  • Military coup on September 11, 1973
  • Led by General Augusto Pinochet, supported by the US CIA 
  • Thousands imprisoned, murdered, tortured, or exhiled 
  • music censorship
  • internationalization of Nueva Cancion
    • Joan Baez

Chile Late 80’s -> today

  • neoliberal economic system
  • reconciliation with history of violence 
  • folkmusic and chilean identity 
    • “new” old forms adopted by young musicians in the 21st century
      • Canto a lo poeta + Cueca brava 
      • Agua Bendita (Los Tres)

Cuban rumba

  • Afro-Cuban dance and song genre
    • Hybrid expression with African and European elements 

Cuban History

  • Colonized by Spanish
  • Spanish brought slaves from West Africa to labor on large sugar and coffee planatations 
  • Quasi-colonized by the US in Spanish-American war, 1898
  • 1959: fall of Batista regime to Fidel Castro, beginning of communist government 

Music of the Caribbean

  • African Legacy 
    • African religions (Santeria, vodou)
    • Syncretized with Catholic and protestant elements 
    • “chorus” of drums 
  • European legacy 
    • 18th and 19th century dance and music 
    • “Creolization”- new forms and functions 

folk and popular music

  • shapes local, national, and international visions of cultural identity 
  • Afro-Caribbean expressions like rumba 
    • Late acceptance as national genres
    • Re-Africanization 

Cuban Rumba

  • Afro-Cuban dance and song genre
    • Hybrid expression with African and European elements 
    • Marginal expression -> national symbol
    • Many styles 
      • Staged folk ensembles 
      • “Party rumba” (late 20th century revival)
    • Many forms 
      • Guaganco
      • Yambu
      • Columbia (male soloist) 


Los Munequitos de Matanzas

  • One of the most well-known and highly regarded rumba groups 
    • Formed in 1952 by dockworkers in port of Matanzas 
    • Include music from Santeria and Abakua secret societies 

Cuban rumba

  • structural base for many Cuban and Latin popular genres 
  • image of Caribbean music in international contexts 

Rumba guaguanco

  • Conversational art of drumming 
  • Tumbao
    • Basic percussion pattern
    • Conga/tumbadoras (medium and low drums)
      • Dialogue between open tones
      • “ponche” on the 4th beat 
  • Timeline 
    • Fixed, repeated pattern
    • Clave (wooden conscussion sticks)
  • Solo/variation
    • Requinto (high solo drum)

Rumba intro

  • La diana 
  • Florid, iberian derived melodies 
  • vocables 

Rumba song

  • El canto
  • Spanish poetic forms 
  • lyrical content 

Rumba “groove”

  • Montuno
  • Call and response vocals (inspiracion and coro)
  • Quinto improvisation
  • faster tempo
  • shorter choruses 

Cuban Rumba

  • European –> African structure 
  • Dance: Vacunao and Botao 

Cuban and Latin Popular music

  • Clave + Tumbao= conversational drumming 
  • three part or two part structure 
  • vocal timbre = “voz de gallo” 

Africa Themes

  • Participation and community 
    • Learning through enculturation
  • Music and spiritual beliefs 
  • Polymeter in rhythm and melody
  • Hybrid styles and the diaspora