Dates of the Romantic Era

melodies longer

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harmony enjoyed, chromatic

rhythm is more free

self expression

expansion of orchestra and blends tone colors in new ways

creation of miniatures


musicians were artists

Artsong/ lieder created

Describe the Romantic Era
artsong is synonymous with
artsong/ lieder
song accompanied by the piano; invented by Schubert

strophic – same music in each stanza, repeating melody


through composed – new material all the time

two different types of art song
collection of songs with a common theme and unifying story;
song cycle
what kind of song is Erlkonig by Schubert?
miniature compositions
short songs
most important piano composer who was strictly piano




miniature types of the Romantic Era;character pieces for piano
fast dance of Polish origins in triple meter with an accent on the second beat
music written for studying; a technical process that was musically beautiful
music to be played at night; one movement



piano only


portrays mood or character

characterize miniatures of this time
flexibility in speed of the beat; flexibility in rhythm
 Franz Lizst
greatest piano performer of the time; practiced 4 to 5 hours a day; first to play entire programs from memory; first to perform on stage facing audience alone; went to Vienna and Paris for music; born in Hungary; performed over 1000 concerts

concert halls



orchestra grew over 100 people

What music venue became important?
absolute music

music written for music’s sake; beautiful


e.g. Vivaldi’s flute concerto

program music
music that has a program; opera overture, concert overture, symphonic poem (tone poem), incedental music; literature important for these
opera overture
preceeds an opera; one movement and in sonata form
concert overture

written to be played on stage in concert; one movemnt and in sonata form


e.g. 1812 overture

symphonic poem
tone poem; one movement and free form
incedental music
music inserted between acts of a play
wrote more than 600 lieder; invented artsong;
Hector Berlioz
music critic for a living; french son of a doctor; in love with Harriet Smithson and is rejected by her; symphonie fantastique (5movemnts)
loved Beethoven; new beethoven; 4 symphonies; NO OPERA AT ALL;
bel canto
beautiful singing in opera
Music Drama
Wagner called his style of opera. . .
russian; upper middle class family; spoke french and german by age 6; parents wanted him to be a lawyer; professor at conservatory in Moscow; wrote every genre; lady gave him money as long as they never met; best known for program music and ballet
greatest pianist of his time

Swan Lake


Sleeping Beauty


Nutcracker Suite

ballets of Tchiakovsky