What are the two main african derived religions in Jamaica?
Kumina & Rastafarianism
What style of drumming is famous in the Kumina and later rastafarian religion? What are its characteristics?
Nyabinghi drumming. Hypnotic and african-influenced. Features 3 drums. Heartbeat rhythm.
Rastafarianism began in what decade? Who was its founder and prophet?
1930s. Leonard Percival Howell

Rastafarian Beliefs


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4 beliefs or customs

1. Black Africans are a lost tribe of Israel

2. Divinity of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopa

3. Africa is spiritual Zion

4. Dreadlocks and Ganga

Ska music is influenced by what style of American music?
Two traits of Ska music are its….
big band horns & piano/guitar off beats
Ska music was recorded in what famous studio? Who was the studio’s founder?
Studio One. Clement Todd.
Rude Boys are….
rebellious post-independence youth of Jamaica
Rock Steady is characterized by the following traits….


More feel

Shift in rhythmic density

Rude Boys

Bass Guitar – louder and more active melodic role


The jamaican studio known for recording rock steady is known as?
Duke Reid’s Treasure Isle
Bob Marley is known for what famous type of Jamaican music?
Reggae is known for the following characteristics…

bass patterns more complex & melodic

Percussion more prominent

“one-drop” or double back beat

Rhythm guitar replaces brass section

Multi – track recording

Reggae music is the voice of the ….
The third world’s first international star is?
Bob Marley
Bob Marley formed the wailers with?
Peter Tosh and Bunny Wailer
Bob Marley recorded with which record company?
Island Records
How does DUB differ from REGGAE?

– studio effects ( fades, echo, reverb ; remixing )

– Grew out of B-side versions

– recycling of riddims


Dancehall is characterized by?

Dj as vocalist speechifying over reggae “riddims”

raw ghetto energy

slackness in lyrics

repetitive song forms


YELLOWMAN – Dancehall star

What is another substyle of dancehall? What is different about it?
Ragga. Reggae beats on digital drum machines and synths. Lyrics about sexual boasting.