Pitch
The highness or lowness of a musical sound
Rhythm

The relative duration of musical sounds; how we measure time in music

 

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In other words, how long or short a sound is in relation to the other sounds

Timbre

The quality (tone color) of a sound

 

For example, the timbre of a trumpet is different from the timbre of a violin.

Intensity
The loudness of a sound
Staff

A system of five horizontal lines, in between which are four space, on which music is notated

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Treble clef

A five line staff on which we notate pitches from the middle to highest register

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Bass clef

A five line staff on which we notate pitches from the lowest to middle registers

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Grand staff

A treble and bass clef joined together by a brace (bracket)

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Notes

The marking on a staff that simultaneously indicates pitch and duration of a musical sound

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Octave

Notes 8 scale degrees apart, called by the same name (A, B, C, etc.)

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Ledger lines

Lines that appear above or below the staff that are higher or lower than what is on the staff

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8va——–

A symbol, followed by a dashed line indicating which notes are affected, indicating that these notes sound an octave above where they are written

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8vb———
A symbol, followed by a dashed line designating the notes affected, that indicates which notes are to be played an octave below where they are written