Voice Masking
Singer changes timbre of voice by:
Constricting the throat (placing hands on throat, face or mouth)
Singing into a bowl
Smoking a special resin coated cigar
Ingesting drugs
Arpa Jarocha
Harp has legs so musicians can play standing up
Diatonic Harp (only white keys in piano)
Nearly five feet high
Played standing up
Sound box is fashioned from 5 slats pieced together or from bending a single piece of 3-ply wood.
Single sound hole in the rear of the sound box
32-36 strings bends the tapa slightly outward
Play bass line with left hand
Play arpeggiated melody with right hand
Combination of two different often mutually contradictory forms of belief or practice
Fusion of the two produces a new belief or practice
Danza Puertorriquena
Always in duple meter
In sectional forms
Generally alternating several measures of 8 or 16 measures
Danza original to Puerto Rico that gained popular recognition during the 1830’s
Cathedral Music
Religious Services
Liturgical Year
Musical Instruction
Sacred liturgical music
Sacred non-liturgical music
Sacred vernacular (villancicos)
Music in community (weddings + funerals)
Cathedral was the center of public + spiritual life
Literally to stop or to staunch period of general stagnation policy of complete control (monopoly) over all aspects of musci, repertoire, personel, by a single individual, the chapel master)
Mission Music
Usually arrived FIRST
Sacred musci for the Catholic liturgical year
EDUCATIONAL objective (conversion, cultural change)
Polyphony = introduced later
Natives became very proficient in composition, performance, and creations of instruments.
Alabanza/ Alabado
Liturgical praise
Song of religious praise in vernacular
Missionary idea of using the familiar to teach
Chapel Master
Maestro de Capilla
Mestre de Capela
Director of music in the Cathedral
Carmen Codex
Codex from the Convento del Carmen
Held many important musical works of the colonial period.
Spanish vernacular muscial and poetic form
Consists of several stanzas (coplas) framed by a refrain (estribillo) at the beginning and the end.
After 1650- sacred and devotional themes
After 1750- Christmas themes
Spanish genre of musical theatre characterized by a mixture of song and music
Usually begins with a Loa (prologue) often in dialogue
Closes with a mojiganga comic or burlesque theatrical postlude to a larger dramatic production performed by the entire cast.
Autos/ Auto sacramentales
Theatrical religious genre
Educational purpose (used by Jesuits in deculturacao)
Religious outdoor plays
Deculturation/ cultural re-orientation
Particularly uncompromising form of proselytization practiced by Jesuits
music for conversion and teaching (sacred music in latin, Gregorian chant, sacred music in vernacular, autos sacramentais)
Religious brotherhood or lay organization that combined the functions of trade guild and social club.
1st one: Irmandade de Santa Cecilia
They were often organized by ethnicity/ skin color
Barroco Mineiro
Prompted by the discovery of gold in Minas Gerias
Population:- large number from African descent
– many mixed race
– large number of free people from color
Art and Architecture were very Barroque
Music from this time period is NOT Barroque
-Preclassical and classical styles
-“Minas School” had mixed race musicians
-instrument building
-assimilation of European styles
Domestic music making within the house
Popular songs in vernacular (not religious)
Lyrical and sentimental
Earliest reference to this genre is 1595
Accompanied by the guitar
During the 19th century they acquired an operatic feeling
Over the top sentimentality
Was exported to Europe and achieved popularity
Lyrical melodies and slower tempos
18th -20th century
Song Lundu
Earliest reference to genre is 1595
Vulgar raunchy lyrics
Simpler chordal accompaniment
Melodies with wide leaps
Viola (folk guitar lightly smaller than the acoustic one)
Lundu dance:
-paired social dance
-all ethnicities
-couple doesn’t embrace
-indoors + outdoors
-lascivious (umbigada: dance step where navels touch)
Batuque/ Batucada
Drumming session
Dancing outdoors, blacks only
Also for martial arts (capoeira), religious rituals of candomble and umbanda
Practice in open areas by slaves during freetime
Dancing= authentic
Whites incorporated some danced from the batuque
Simple Afro-Brazilian rythms
Viola Caipira
Folk guitar
10 strings in 5 courses
More than 25 different tunings
typically tuned in 4ths
Typically played by plucking or picking the strings
Means village in Portuguese
Created by the Jesuits
That is where natives were protected and music teaching, instrument making, and composition taught.
Native American musical instruments from Aztec or Maya cultures
Musical instruments where considered deities
Single-Headed Drum
Stands on 3 feet cut from the base
Native American instrument from Maya or Aztec cultures
Musical instruments were considered deities
Log drum with H-shaped slits
Leaves 2 tongues/lamelles of DIFFERENT sizes
Mallets were rubber coated sticks or rubber coated deer antlers
Instrumental Lundu
Hybrid genre (Iberian contradanza and African batuque)
Music for dance
Some where made for piano (very polished/ gentrified)
Syncopated (Afro-Brazilian rhythms from batuque)
Uneven 3 in 2
Diferencias (variations)
Music improvised for dance
Built over a 2-4 bar harmonic groove that repeats
Played by ear
Chord Progression
Percussion instruments, and viola (other chords too)
Comes at the time when Maximiliaan a frenchman was emperor of Mexico
Word has native roots (word for wood in cora language)
Musical ensemble of guitars, guitarron, diatonic harp, and trumpet.
Originating in Jalisco
Musical performance style
Mariachi played: son, ranchera, corrido, huapango, jarabe
Mariachi before 1940:
melody: violins harp
chords: vihuela, guitarra de golpe
bass: guitarron
Trumpets were added later
Small 5 string guitar (about 3/4 of normal guitar)
Comes in 3 sizes
Back is CONVEX
Strings have a SHORT VIBRATION
Strings are NOT PLUCKED
Percussion like sound
Guitarra de Golpe
Small 5 string guitar
Straight back
Owl-shaped headstock
Re-entrant tuning
Constructed like a huge vihuela w/ convex back
6 strings
Re-entrant tuning
A rhythm of Spanish origin
Unequal ternary
A Son
End of 19th century
medley of sones played back to back
jarabe largo
jarabe tapatio (then series of slow waltzes alternated with fast dancing sections)
Great for dancing and longer celebrations
Son jarocho
Never became as popular as the mariachi
Never became a national identity
Conjunto jarocho: diatonic harp, jarana, requinto
Six line coplas
Paired strophe (pregon, pregones)
Instrumental interludes
Call and Response (pregones, coro)
Textual and instrumental improvisation
Jarochos wear the traditional white guayabera a palliate (colorful scarf) and a cowboy hat (has 4 bumps) and boots
Short harmonic and rhythmic pattern that is repeated
Points to African influences
Melodies and lyrics are improvised over this pattern
Jarana jarocha
Small, guitar-shaped, fretted string instrument
8 strings, 5 courses, re-entrant tuning
Sharper sound
Very shallow sand box
Traditionally carved out of a single block of wood
Comes in several sizes (tercerola, tercera, segunda, mosquito)
Requinto Jarocho
rejona jabalina
small guitar-shaped, fretted string instrument
pluck with large 4in pick made of cow horn
4/5 (2nd interval between 1st and 2nd string)
Jarana Huasteca
Smaller version of huapanguera
5 strings tuned in 3rds
Deep body
Small guitar-shaped fretted string instrument
Huapanguera (AKA guitarra quinta)
Deep bodied guitar shaped fretted instrument
8 strings
5 courses
Re-entrant tuningg
Political/ Social philosophy in which the welfare of the nation-state as an entity is considered paramount
Glorification of national virtues
Mythification of History and Culture (creation of a COMMON narrative)
In Music:
Belief in the spirit of a people as a creative force… and idea with a character and a function which is simplistic to identify with the phenomenon of a national style
Melody, harmony, rhythm, timbre, genre, text, subject, etc…
Salon music
Pejorative term
Music of LIGHT character that aims to be entertaining rather than profound
Parlor music
Stylized dances
Piano music
Audience= bourgoisie
Becomes the locus where regional elements can be introduced
Grupo de los Cuatro
Blas Galindo Dimas
Daniel Ayala Perez
Jose Pablo Moncayo Garcia
Salvador Contreras
Post revolutionary aesthetic that used elements of pre-encounter culture as nationalistic symbols
Chavez saw this as the true expression of the Mexican identity/narrative.
Pentatonic scale (Asian)
Nobody knows how Aztec music sounded like
Authenticity in isolated native cultures was compromised
Though elitist recognized the need to be more comprehensive about social…
Straight back
12 strings, 6 courses
Triangular shape
Derived from Renaissance lute
Cuban adaptation of Spanish guitar
6 strings, 3 courses
Asymmetrical shape (indentation of lower side of guitar)
Reentrant tuning
Wide gap between the 3 courses
Plucked w/ fingers
Plays melodic lines/ accompaniment figures
Rhythm instrument
Punto Cubano
Puntear (pick/pluck)
Any kind of music accompaniment with guitar
Decima poetic form
10 line stanzas
4 line introduction
Seguidilla- decima four
Punto fijo- accompaniment = always present
Punto libre- accompaniment stops for occasional a capella
Originally from Matanzas in Cuba
From Afro-Cuban clock workers
Cajones (wooden boxes used for shipping) + Glassbottle
Cajones:replaced by instrumental accompaniment and replaced by drums (Congas)
Glass bottle: Claves replaced the bottle
Music for singing +dancing
Vocal +rhythm improvisation
2 Sections: 1 section [diana (scat-singing), canto (1 or 2
2 section [Montuno (place for improv)]
Lead singer always plays the clave
Choir plays other instruments
Dancing in montuno section
Vacunao dace step
3 types:
1) Guaguanco (couples dance, sexual choreography)
2) Columbia (Solo male dance, fast tempo)
3) Yambu (couples dance, slow tempo)
Mid to late 1870’s
Binary form
8 or 16 bars with repeats
Choreographed dance
2 sections: 1st section (Habanera rhythm)
2nd section (cinquillo rhythm)
European dance steps (couples are apart)
Contradanza came from France and England
Couples dance embraced
Habanera and Cinquillo rhythms
Instrumentation (orquesta tipica, charanga)
20th century- a montuno section starts to appear in the Danzon
Son Montuno
Solo song that alternates with chorus
Close section- canto largo
Followed by a montuno with a chorus/estribillo
Instrumentation- guitar, laud, tres
-bongos, tumbadores, claves, maracas
– marimbula (giant thumb piano) later contrabass
Orquesta Tipica
Valve Trombone
Replaces the orquesta tipica
2 flutes
4 violins
Percussion (2 tumbadoras)
Fusion of the rumba (clave rhythms, form, percussion instruments and big band)
Catches onto the Montuno
Back up musicians (clave rhythm)= very Cuban
Melody swings
Brass instruments
Son Jaliscience
Generic term for Mexican rural music
Strophic form (strophes are separated by instrumental interludes)
Simple chord patterns
Cadences (closing formulas vary by region)
Simple harmony + chordal patterns
No variation in the son
Every musician has their own way of singing/ performing
wooden sticks used as a Cuban Instrument
Cuban scraping instrument (a scraper)

1)A repeated base groove

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2) The second section of the Son Montuno where text and melody are improvised AKA descarga

3) From the mountains

Cuban instrument in which the musician sits on and it looks like a giant thumb piano.
A slow Cuban dance of the 19th century
A tall narrow, single-headed Cuban drum
A cowbell struck with a wooden stick
A cinquillo is a typical Cuban/Caribbean rhythmic cell, derived from the contradanza and the danzon.
a genre of Cuban popular music, of rapid tempo and with lyrics
Genre of Cuban music
19th century
Sang by itinerant musicians called trovadores:
Sing songs of their own composition or by other trovadores
Accompany themselves on the guitar
Deal Poetically with a song