What was/is this? a two part musical form . AABB. often the A ends with a modulation to the dominant or relative major, and the B begins with that, and returns to the original key.
binary form
What was/is this?: A musical form often associated with the final movement of a classical multi-movement
sonata. It is characterized with a returning passage interrupted with new material after each iteration of the “returning
passage”. Often outlined as ABACADA…
Rondo Form
What is this?: A movement in minuet-trio form, but played with such a sped-up tempo that the minuet becomes
absurdly distorted. This form was given the Italian word for “joke.” Haydn coined it, but the form is most often
associated with Beethoven
What classical form does the following describe? A highly sophisticated ABA form, built around the ideas of
balance and contrast. The first “A” is called the exposition, consisting of 2 themes in contrasting keys; the “B” is
called the development, characterized by tonal instability and working out of thematic material from the exposition;
the last “A” is called the recapitulation, and is identical to the exposition, except it all remains in the original
Sonata-Allegro form
What is this?: The optional extended closing section of a sonata-allegro form; it comes after the recapitulation
What is the correct term for the form that fits the following description? A sonata for orchestra. Usually consists
of 4 movements: usually 1. Allegro (Sonata form) 2. Slow (ABA), 3. Minuet, 4. Rondo. This form evolved
originally out of the Italian Opera Overture.
What was/is this?: An accompanimental figure that gives the illusion of sustained chords by quick, repeated arpeggiated
chords. It facilitated the classical preference for relatively slow harmonic rhythm [rate of chord change
per measure].
Alberti bass
What is this?: A passage in a concerto near the end of a movement, during which the soloist freely improvises on
musical ideas presented earlier in the piece. Marked by a I64 harmony in the orchestra, then a long passage where
the soloist improvises, and ends with a powerful authentic cadence, where the entire orchestra comes in with the
closing passages of the movement
What was the most famous orchestra in Europe during the mid 18th Century? The model/template for the
symphony orchestra, imitated all over Europe. Certain novel, fashionable stylistic techniques are associated with
compositions written for this orchestra: for example, “rockets” and sustained crescendos.
Mannheim Orchestra
What term fits this description?: A thematic, melodic figure characterized by a rapidly rising arpeggio.
Mannheim Rocket
What is the German term for the following?: Led by the towering dramatist and poet Goethe, this was an assertion
of human emotional life in all its ambiguity and complexity, as opposed to the cool rationalism of the Enlightenment.
Often associated with certain of Haydn’s works, it was an intensely passionate, unsettled emotional
composition of the classical period. An excellent example of this style is the fast part of the first movement of
Beethoven’s Piano Sonata in C minor, Op. 13, “Pathetique.”
Sturm und Drang
What was this?: A new type of bow used to play string instruments — introduced during the classical period and
has been in use ever since.
Tourte bow
Who was Haydn’s patron and benefactor? This nobleman provided Haydn with his own orchestra and a generous
inheritance, enabling Haydn to live in prosperous comfort until the end of his life
Prince Nikolaus Esterbazy
What was this new type of chamber music “invented” by Joseph Haydn?: Instrumentation is 2 violins, viola
and cello. A multi-movement work, usually in 4 movements: usually 1. Allegro (Sonata form) 2. Slow (ABA), 3.
Minuet, 4. Rondo
String quartet
What is the standard instrumentation of a string quartet?
2 violins, viola and cello
Who was the concert organizer who brought Joseph Haydn to London and commissioned many of Haydn’s last
symphonies and the oratorio The Creation
Johann Peter Salomon
What is the Italian word for this?: The text (book) set to music by a composer in an opera, singspiel, or oratorio.
Who was this?: An early classical opera composer. He is associated with the opera reforms, an effort to clean up
opera seria so that every element would contribute to furthering the presentation of the story. These reforms were a
reaction to the increasing tendency to clutter musical drama with unrelated arias, superfluous choruses, that sometimes
rendered the plot unintelligible.
Christoph Willibald von Gluck
Who was the King of France during Mozart’s 1778 visit to Paris?
Louis XVI (married to Marie Antoinette)
What was the name of the Archbishop of Salzburg (he appears in the film Amadeus), and the employer of the
Mozart family musicians? Wolfgang Mozart struggled to be released from his employ, finally succeeding in 1781
during a confrontation at a party at the Archbishop’s residence in Vienna.
Archbishop  Colloredo
Who was the Emperor of the Austrian Empire during Mozart’s residence in Vienna? He was probably the closest
thing to an Enlightened Despot in history. He freed the slaves, took power away from the nobility and the church,
and established universal education, lived simply and modestly. His reforms were so dictatorial that he managed to
alienate nearly everybody. His court composer was Antonio Salieri. He was portrayed in the film Amadeus, falsely, as
a dim-witted, conceited monarch who worried only about that night’s opera
Antonio Saleri
Who was Mozart’s primary Italian opera collaborator?. This poet wrote the libretti to Mozart’s most popular Italian
operas: Marriage of Figaro, Cosi fan tutte, and Don Giovanni. He had a reputation for living beyond his means
and his fondness of young ladies. He was a friend of Casanova
Lorenzo da ponte
Who was this?: A vaudeville performer/producer who commissioned Mozart to write The Magic Flute, one of
Mozart’s last works, for his music hall in Vienna. He supplied the libretto to that opera.
Emanuel Schickeneder
What is the German term for this?: A comic opera, sung in the local language (non-Italian) language. All the dialogues
are spoken, not sung
Who in 1862 published a complete catalog of Mozart’s works, listed in chronological (date composed) order?
What is the name of Beethoven’s famous 1802 letter to his brothers that he wrote when he realized he was permanently
losing his hearing? In it he confesses that he wanted to die, but then reaffirms his mission to compose music for
the ages
Heilegenstadt Testament
Who was the master composer famed for his hundreds of Lieder. He died the year after Beethoven’s death.
Franz Schubert
Who composed the “Unfinished” Symphony?
Franz Schubert
What Viennese composer mostly he lived with friends and often was supported by them.
Franz Schubert
What composer was a student of Salieri, was a former member of the Vienna Boys’ Choir, and was an admirer of
Franz Schubert
What composer wrote songs especially for his friend, baritone Johann Michael Vogl?
Franz Schubert
Who wrote the song cycles Die schone Mulerin and Winter
Franz Schubert
What composer spent much of his time in Viennese coffee houses and composed music constantly
Franz Schubert
Who composed the operatic epic Les Troyens (The Trojans)?
Hector Berlioz
Who was the first significant composer to write memoirs; a true Romantic
hector Berlioz
What composer was considered an “enemy” of the Parisian musical establishment, the “first” avant-garde composer?
hector berlioz
What composer played guitar and flute; never learned the piano?
Hector Berlioz
What composer was noted for “creating” the art of orchestration, the art of combining instrumental colors?
hector berlioz
Which composer was the first to grasp the full potential of the new valved brass instruments, according to Jan Swafford?
hector berlioz
Which composer wrote a “symphony” describing an opium trip
Hector Berlioz
Which child prodigy composer composed an overture and incidental music for Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s
Feliz Mendelssohn
Who composed a violin concerto for his violin virtuoso friend Ferdinand David?
felix Mendelssohn
Which composer’s reputation for sweetness and light brought acclaim in his lifetime? He composed Songs Without Words
Felix Mendelssohn
Which composer revived J.S. Bach’s St. Matthew Passion, performed it for the first time after 75 years following Bach’s
felix Mendelssohn
What famous composer stuggled with being compulsive and obsessive? He produced a staggering quantity of major
works in a very short amount of time, interrupted by periods of deep depression and inactivity.
Robert Schumann
What famous pianist/composer ruined his right hand by practicing with an invention designed to make his 4th and
5th fingers completely independent (he pulled a tendon)? He was thus forced to end his performing career and take up
as a composer and one of the first music critics
Robert Schumann
Which composer strongly identified himself with the characters Eusebius, Florestan, and Raro?
Robert Schumann
Whose best and most characteristic works are collections of miniatures—songs, little character pieces: fragments? He
died in an insane asylum
Robert Schumann
What famous composer/critic became a mentor to the young Johannes Brahms? He arranged for that young composer’s
works to be published by one of Europe’s great publishing houses
Robert Schumann
Which composer was the spouse of another famous composer, and the “close friend” of yet another famous composer?
Clara Weick Schumann
(Besides Robert Schumann) which composer reportedly fell in love with Clara Wieck Schumann, Robert Schumann’s
Johannes Brahms
Which composer waited until middle age to compose his first of four symphonies because he was intimidated by
Beethoven’s achievement?
Which composer became the hero of conservative minded musicians who resented the musical experimentation of
Wagner and Liszt? His compositions represented the continuation of classical traditions. A Romanticist at heart but a
Classicist in form and technique
Johanne Brahms
Who composed the German Requiem
Johannes Brahms
Which famous Czech composer was mentored by Johannes Brahms, who put him on the musical map
antonin dvorak
Who composed his New World Symphony (Symphony No. 9, “From the New World”) during a sojourn in Iowa? He
was conductor of The New York Philharmonic for several years. He was originally from Bohemia (now known as the
Czech Republic).
Antonin Dvorak
Who wrote Der Freischutz (The Free Shooter) reflecting German folk song, based on a German legend, and set in the
depths of the German forest?
Carl Maria von weber
Which composer brought the clarinet into prominence as a solo instrument
carl maria von weber
Who does this describe?: In his virtuoso piano performances he was celebrated for his unprecendented rubato, in
which his right hand played with a flexible, wandering rhythm over the left hand’s strict tempo

Frederic Chopin
Whose works bear names typical of Romantic free genres—nocturne, scherzo, ballade, prelude, impromptu, etude,
mazurka, polonaise, waltz?
frederic chopin
Who does this describe?: A very fashionable Polish composer, resident of Paris, the quintessential pianist/composer;
composed almost exclusively for the piano.
Frederic Chopin
Whose 24 Preludes for piano were designed to echo J.S. Bach’ Well-Tempered Klavier by visiting all 24 keys?
frederic chopin
Who does this describe?: Because of his innovative use of dissonant notes in some of this composer’s compositions,
one colleague commented about him: “One does not know at times whether [the notes he plays] are right or wrong.”
Frederic Chopin
Which Hungarian was one of the great piano virtuosos of all time; many of his compositions were designed to show
off his pianistic brilliance?
Franz Liszt
Who is this? When this composer made his confession to the Pope at exhausting length, the pontiff finally exclaimed,
“Basta, ______; go tell your sins to the piano!” This composer was very strongly influenced by the music of Hector
Berlioz, adopting and extending the use of the idee fixe and the concept of program music.
Franz Liszt
Who does this describe?: This composer imagined he was writing the music of the future. Near the end of his life he
wrote several enigmatic, meditative little piano pieces, (such as “The Little Bell”)that suggest the harmonic style of
Debussy and anticipate Schoenberg.
Franz Liszt
Which famous 19th century composer took on minor Roman Catholic religious orders but never became a full priest?
Franz Liszt
Which composer/virtuoso pianist was born in a house on Esplanade in the French Quarter of New Orleans?
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
What Creole-American composer/pianist was a close friend of Frederick Chopin and Franz Liszt? Two of his wellknown
compositions are The Banjo and Grand Bamboula.
Louis Moreau Gottschalk
Whose masterpiece was The Barber of Seville, based on the first of two plays by Beaumarchais?
Gioacchino Rossini
Whose opera William Tell was hated by the Parisians, but its overture later became renowned as the theme to The Lone
Ranger radio and TV series?
gioacchino Rossini
Which famous composer later became a famous Paris chef
Gioacchino Roossini
Who omposed the operas La Traviata and Rigoletto?
giuseppe verdi
What “retired” octogenarian composer wrote two of his finest operas Otello and Falstaff, based on Shakespeare plays?
giuseppe verdi
What composer was commissioned to compose Aida, an opera on a spectacular scale, in commemoration of the opening
of the Suez Canal in Egypt?
giuseppe verdi
What composer is strongly identified with the rise of Italian nationalism and the unification of Italy
giuseppe verdi
What composer dedicated his work to German nationalism and mythology; his ideas found resonance in the German
Nazi Party of the 20th Century? His Tristan und Isolde is considered to have exhausted all the possibilities of tonal
richard wagner
What composer united the chromatic harmony of Liszt and affected composers well into the 20th Century? He
absorbed the orchestration and general giganticism of Berlioz. This composer’s expansion of harmonic language to its
full potential portended the collapse of tonality
richard wagner
What megalomaniacal composer wrote operas almost exclusively? He turned opera into a continuous symphonic fabric.
He developed a theory of total theatre.
richard wagner
What opera composer assigned each of his characters signature tunes, or Leitmotifs?
richard wagner
With help from his patron, Ludwig II, the “mad” King of Bavaria, what composer had an opera house built especially
for the performance of his The Ring of the Niebelungen opera cycle?
richard wagner
Who was the famous Russian who composed the 1812 Overture, Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty, Romeo and Juliet, The Nutcracker?
pyort ilyich tchaikovsky
Who does this describe?: A Russian nationalist, he composed the opera Boris Godunov. Composing music was originally
his hobby; he was a trained military officer
modest mussorgsky
Who was this?: He composed the tone poems A Night on Bald Mountain and Pictures at an Exhibition.
modest mussorgsky
Who does this describe?: This composer was a professional opera conductor, and composed symphonies on a gigantic
scale. He relied very much on the influence of folk melodies. He was one of the greatest orchestrators of all time.
gustav mahler
What composer wrote Das Lied von der Erde (The Song of the Earth), a song cycle for tenor and soprano voices and orchestra?
gustav mahler
What Austrian composer was an organist, and composed his massive 9 symphonies for a huge orchestra?
anton bruckner
What composer declared allegiance to Hitler and served as head of the Nazi Reichsmusikkammer?
richard strauss